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The Lighthouse’s guide to Unknown Cultures

by Francesco Defferrari from Threshold Magazine issue 9

The Lighthouse’s guide to Unknown Cultures

by Francesco Defferrari (Sturm)

Antiquity of the Hollow World

Once, it was widely believed our world of the Eternal Sun was a relatively recent Immortal creation. But in recent times our numerous encounters with ancient races have led us to believe otherwise. Mystara’s cultural history, both on the surface and the interior, may be far more ancient than previously hypothesized. The Hollowdeep (1), the Depths of the Oceans and the Floating Continents are home to alien and exotic creatures, straight out of Mystara’s ancient past (2).

1 - In the following and previous threads on The Piazza:, and here on the Vaults of Pandius:, the Mystara community more or less decided to callShadowdeepandHollowdeepthe underground regions of Mystaras Outer and Hollow World.
2 - Many
creatures and civilizations described in this article came from my 99,9999985% Mystara history article here:, which presupposes a much more ancient Mystaran history than the one normally described in canon.

The Abysmal Elemental Kingdoms

Many years ago, an expedition reached the World Shield. Needless to say, such journey was unbelievably challenging, nearly killing all the participants. Still, the survivors managed to return with an incredible account. Evidently, the underground of the Hollow World is much more vast and intricate than we could have possibly suspected before this report. The authors state, a sea of fire lay deep below, dividing the Hollowdeep from the Shadowdeep of the Outer World. Upon this ocean of lava, islands dotted with mighty palaces and cities float, home to creatures of fire and flame; asserting they once dominated all Mystara. The expedition was just able to barely escape them. In other regions of the Hollowdeep, they discovered an ancient, shifting realm of Earth creatures and a subterranean sea so extensive its shores could not be seen. The sea also held inhabitants, aquatic creatures vaguely resembling ancient Crabmen and other water breathing inhabitants.
We named these realms the Deep Elemental Kingdoms. We do not know yet how big such realms may be and how many creatures they might contain, nor if we will ever be able to establish friendly relations with them.

Lairs of the Burrowers

Above the Elemental Kingdoms, lies a vast layer of the Hollowdeep which contains the lairs of the Burrowers, the great worms that thousands of years ago almost destroyed the Hollow World, and Ka-Na (1) civilizations. It is well known some of the monsters still lay dormant in those subterranean chambers. As we have learnt, attempting to destroy them is always dangerous, as they could be too powerful to be dealt with once awakened. Leaving them be; however, could be likewise dangerous, as they might exert influence on nearby societies. This entire level of the Hollowdeep is mostly inhabited by Decapus, Fungoids, Scamilles, Wurmlings (2) and other bizarre creatures whom ignorants may consider aberrations. Yet most are intelligent races, vastly different from humanoid species, who had great civilizations in Mystara’s ancient past. It is true; however, that some among these communities have already been corrupted by sleeping Burrowers.

1 - I arbitrarily gave the Brute-Men this name, as the word they would use to name themselves.
2 - Appears
in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium here:

The Eternal Dark

Undying creatures neither alive nor dead, whom people of the Outer World call undead, live, if this verb can be used for them, in the Hollowdeep below Milenia, Nithia, Bahlor, Azca and other human nations. Indeed, Lighthouse scholars suspect their caverns are all somehow interconnected , but we know nothing of their purpose. Are they pawns of the Burrowers? Are they allies or adversaries of the Shattenalfen? We will have to further explore their caverns to provide answers to these questions. Another matter concerns the nation of Intua (1), which apparently is a branch of the Oltec civilization, living beneath the Olltec hills and the Schattenalfen caverns. We have not yet discerned if undead lords likewise dominate them.


1 - See here for more info about Intua:

Map of the Hollow World

Caption: This is a thumbnail of a Hollow World map drawn by me using the HW boxed set Planetary map and joining Thorfinn Tait’s Map of Iciria (, Geoff Gander and Thorfinn’s map of Selhomarr ( and Robin’s Map of Blacklore ( The scale of these maps was originally 40 miles per hex, but I think it should be considered to be 60, or the Hollow world is only 5040 miles from pole to pole and has a circumference of 10080 miles. In the HW planetary map the circumference was indicated at 11908 miles: in this case each hex of the Iciria’s map should be around 47 miles. I’d prefer a 60 miles per hex scale, with a resulting circumference of 15120 miles wide, which fits better with the size of the planet that I calculated for my Outer Mystara maps ( Each Dm however may choose the scale he or she prefers. A full size version of this map will be also published in the Mystara forum at The Piazza and on the Vaults of Pandius.
This map includes locations described in this article, in “Who is Who in the Wyrmsteeth part II” in this same issue (regarding Hollow World dragons) and other fanon locations. Håvard placed several canon and fanon cultures in his map here: He also gathered some informations on Barrik’s Vale: and the Radiant Vale: Andrew Theisen wrote about about the Anathy Archipelago:
Shahjapur locations were taken from Thorfinn Tait’s 8 miles per hex map of the island (

Lands of the Giant Insects

From the Eastern Coast of Iciria to the Wintlian islands; including the Aerimar Gauntlet between Aerical and Surical, Northern Jomphur and the Anathy Archipelago; nearly all the equatorial lands of the Hollow World beyond Iciria support giant insect life. Aside from normal and giant insects species, several Insectoid (1) cultures and nations inhabits these lands. Crabmen and Scorpionfolk are usually counted among them, even if technically they are not, with communities and nations in the Wintlian Isles. Two distinct breeds of Scorpionfolk also inhabit the deserts of Boglucubul (2) and Nithia. Araneas exist on Arana (3) Island in the Anathy Archipelago and in Jomphur, while Hivebrood claim territories in northern Jomphur. Formian and other intelligent insects might be numerous in southern Aerical and northern Suridal, but accounts are fragmentary, with more surveys certainly needed. Reports of additional Aranea and Formian cultures in Iciria’s jungles have yet to be verified as well.

1 - I use the term “Insectoid” to denote intelligent insect races.
2 - In Krugel Horde territories, see the map of Iciria here:
3 - Not explicit in the Hollow World boxed set, but I think the name gives us a definite clue as to what beings reside there.

Lands of the Reptilians

Dinosaurs live in many areas of the Hollow World, but intelligent specimens, known as Saurials, founded a nation on Aerical. Other reptilian cultures live in the Eastern continents. Therapsids, Gatormen, Caymen (1), Troglodytes, Sis’thik, Chameleon men (2), Froglins and Frogfolk (3) have their nations in Aerical, Suridal and surrounding islands. Tortles also are known to exist in the Anathy Archipelago. Xarypt, a nation of Serpentines (4), lies in Northern Suridal. The entirety of the Hollow World’s tropics are ideal habitat for reptilian species. Several reptilian cultures thrive around Nithian and Krugel Horde territories, and also in the proximity of the Malpheggi swamps, beside the Lizardmen, Jorris (5) and Dragons which are the swamp’s main inhabitants. Troglodytes also inhabit the World Spine and the Azcan Mountains (6) in great numbers. Saurials, Gatormen (7), Ratlings and Neshezus (8) inhabits the Bakoto swamp within Tanagoro lands.

1 - Gatormen and Caymen appear in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium: Therapsids are my creation based on real word therapsids:
2 - Or
Wallara, appear in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium:
3 - Froglins
appear in the Goodman Games2004 Blackmoor Campaign Setting, while Frog folk appear in DA2 Temple of the Frog, page 14 and also here:, as well as here:
4 - Introduced
by James Mishler in Davania here:, in Threshold Issue #5. I supposed Arypt was the name of their empire, and gave the name to that entire region of Davania. Xarypt would simply meanNew Arypt.
5 - Appears
in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium:
6 - Listed
in the Hollow World boxed set as inhabiting the mountains.
7 - Included
because the Hollow World boxed set lists Crocodile, Sasquatch, Weasel and Wererat as creatures of the swamp; yet I think Gatormen, Jorri, Neshezu and Ratling may be more appropriate.
8 - Appears
in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium:

The Animal Kingdoms

The mountains and temperate areas of Aerical, Suridal and Jomphur have been named by Lighthouse’s explorers The Animal Kingdoms, as they are inhabited by several Demianimals (1), such as Actaeon, Cryons, Faenare, Goatmen (2), Gyerian, Jorris, Lupins, Minotaurs, Mugumba (3), Mythu’nn (4), Nagpas, Neshezu, Pachydermion, Phanatons, Rakastas, Ratlings (5) and many more. Additional animal kingdoms remain hidden among the savage lands of Iciria. It is common knowledge among our agents that Apefolk, Bearfolk and Sealfolk live in the north among the Beastmen, as well as ancient breeds of Lupins and Rakastas, who also live in Neathar lands. Icirian forests and jungles are home to a great diversity of Demianimals, including Bearfolk, Boarfolk, Gazellefolk, Giffs, Minotaurs, Pachydermion, Phanatons, Rabbitfolk, Ratlings (6), Rhinofolk, and many races of Monkeyfolk and Apefolk. The World Spine mountains and hills are home of Rock Baboons, Goatmen, Saquatches and many others. Indeed, the Demianimals races are too many to list them all. As an example, the Hollow World hosts infinite variations of Minotaurs races, such as Bisontaur, Muskoxtaur (7) and Wisentaur on Northern Iciria; Aurochtaur and at least two races of Buffalotaurs in Southern Iciria and Jomphur. Antelopetaur, Gaurtaur, Yaktaur, Zebutaur inhabit Jomphur, while Elandtaur, Gnufolk, and Nyalataur exist in Southern Iciria. The same is true for all the others Demianimal orders (8), so you can encounter such races as the Tapirfolk (9) of Suridal, the Penguinfolk of the far South, or the Civetfolk of Jomphur (10).

1 - A term I invented here to indicate the races of intelligent animals, to match the term demihuman.
2 - Appears in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium:
3 - Appears in Champions of Mystara:
4 - Appears in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium:
5 - Appears in the Thunder Rift’s Quest for the Silver Sword:
6 - The Hollow World Boxed set list a variety of werecreatures as inhabitants of the Hollow World’s woods. I think Demianimals races may be more appropriate to the Hollow World, but werecreatures could live alongside Demianimals races or substitute them as the DM prefers.
7 - As proposed here:
8 - For example, these are the Mammals orders:
9 - As proposed here by Havard:
10 - The latter two were created by me here and do not appear previously in canon of fanon sources of which I am aware.

Flying Peoples of the Floating Continents

The Floating Continents (1) of the Hollow World host a variety of people and races capable of flight. Hiak-Lor is home to the Hiakrai Neathar, who astride their giant eagles exploit their homeland’s annual orbit to raid Azcan, Neathar, Krugel and Antalian lands, and even Aerical and Jomphur. Ashmorain is home to the Feathered Serpents. Oostdok is the flying island of the Gnomes. Other Floating Continents are inhabited by Dragons (2), Drakes, Ee’aars (3), Enduks (4), Faeries (5), Gargoyles (6), Harpies, Hawkfolk (7), Krollis (8), Pegataurs, Rocs, Shedus, Sphinxes, Pteryx (9), Pegasus, Red Hawk Dragons (10), Tabis and stranger creatures like the Apteras. The latter are a race of intelligent flying insects, probably once inhabiting the Outer world (11). A variety of Aerial creatures and Djinn also roam the Floating Islands. Beside intelligent species, further flying animals and beasts populate these continents, including Chimeras, Flapsails (12), Ghriests (13), Griffons, Hippogriffs (14), Hydras, Pterosaurs and Pteranodons, Tyminids (15) and Wyverns. In the last few decades, Outer World visitors in flying ships have also been spotted in the Hollow World’s skies (16); and we have now a growing concern they could disrupt the unique cultures of the Floating Continents.

1 - Here there is a list of them by Andrew Theisen:
2 - See
my articleWho is Who in the Wyrmsteeth part IIabout Dragons of the Outer and the Hollow World in this issue of Threshold.
3 - Described
in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium here:
4 - Described
in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium here:
5 - Canon
creature, also described here:
6 - As
intelligent creatures, some immortal may have chosen to preserve them, indeed they are indicated as inhabitants of the Mountains in the Hollow world boxed set, page 30 of the Adventure Book.
7 - Or
Werehawks, as they were exterminated in Minrothad according to Gaz9 The Guilds of Minrothad.
8 - Described
in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium here:
9 - They
already live in the Hollow Moon, see here and Chimpmans Once in a Blue Moon in Threshold issue #2, in Threshold issue #5 I also hypothesized that some may still live in the Brasol mountains of Davania.
10 - Described
in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium here:
11 - Created
by me, already hinted at in Threshold issue #5, where I place some in the area of Pelatan in Davania
12 - Pterosaurs, Pteranodons
and Flapsails are described in the Hollow World boxed set.
13 - Described
in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium here:
14 - Listed
in the Hollow World boxed set as populating the mountains.
15 - Described
in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium here:
16 - Heldannic
Knights starts exploring the Hollow World in 960 AC and The Princess Ark makes her first exploration in 965 AC. The arrival of Alphatia in 1010 AC will obviously worry even more The Lighthouse, and will have a huge impact on the people inhabiting the other Floating Continents.

Map of the Floating Continents

Caption: The position of the biggest floating continents on Nuwmont the 1st, as given in the Poor Wizard’s Almanac III, page 132. Resi and Tama annual orbits were inverted in page 129 and 131: I decided to assume the ones on page 131 are the correct ones. Only 8 floating continents were listed, but Andrew Theisen added some information here: about the other 3 canon ones (Ashmorain, Hiak’lor and Oostdok. I decided arbitrarily their position on Nuwmont, the 1st and the orbit. Alphatia is shown as if the Hollow World has a circumference of 15120 miles and each hex is 60 miles (see caption to the Hollow World full map). With hexes at 40 miles, the size of Alphatia in comparison to the Hollow World would be bigger and, in my humble opinion, quite excessive. The first diameters given in the table below appeared in the Poor Wizard’s Almanac III page 129, without Ashmorain, Hiak-lor and Oostdok, whose dimensions were in canon for Ashmorain and Oostdok, but I had to invent for Hiak’lor. When a second diameter is present, it’s the adjusted size the floating continent should have if the Hollow World has a circumference of 15120 miles. Also, with a bigger Hollow World the values below, particularly Orbital Speeds, should be adjusted accordingly, but for now I left the info below as given in the canon source, even if I am not sure they are all correct.
The white outline around each floating continent should reflect, approximately, the diameter of its shadow. Chijioke’s shadow is quite bigger due to its height.
A full size version of this map will be also published in the Mystara forum at The Piazza and on the Vaults of Pandius.

Floating Continent

Altitude (mi)

Diameter (mi)

Annual Orbits

Orbital Speed (mi/day)

Shadow Diameter (mi)

Shadow Speed (mph)

Shadowfall Lasts (hh:mm)

Intelligent Inhabitants









Humans and others



60 - 76






Feathered serpents



73 - 92






Drakes, Krollis,

Pteryx ,



218 - 277






Rocs, Gargoyles, Faeries



181 - 230






Eeaars, Enduks, Pegataurs, Pegasus



112 - 142






Grondheim (see below)









Neathar humans, Hawkfolks



109 - 138






Harpies, Tabis



40 - 51






Gnomes, Sprites



76 - 96









69 - 88






Shedus, Sphynxes

Queen of the Oceans

The mysterious Queen who is supposed to be ruler of all the Hollow World’s oceans and has a lair or palace someplace within the Sea of Rax. She is said to be an enormous sea dragon according to some accounts. In others she appears as an ancient dragon turtle. Yet she could even belong to a hitherto unknown species. Legend says she protects denizens of the sea when in extreme danger, either from natural causes or powerful enemies. Acanthodians (1), Acquatic Elves, Ammonites, Crabmen, Decapus, Devilfish, Dolphins, Sea Dragons and Dragon Turtles, Eurypterids, Sea Giants, Sea Hags, Sea Hermits (2), Hydraxes (3), Knas, Koprus, Sea Lizardmen (4), Mermen, Narwhals, Nautilus, Nixies, Opabinia, Ostracoderms, Omm-wa (5), Sealfolk, Shark-kin, Shimmerfish (6), Snappers (7), Trilobites, Tritons, Undines (8): all the intelligent inhabitants of the oceans and seas have their own legend concerning the Queen, and how she once saved them. Is she an Immortal? A Behemoth? It’s possible we may never find the answer to this question.

1 - This intelligent creature and all the following not included in canon Mystaran products were created by me here: and inspired by the namesake real world animals.
2 - Described
in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium here:
3 - Described
in the Expert set and the AD&D Mystara Monstrous Compendium Appendix.
- Sea Lizardmen, Mermen, Nixies, Dolphins, Devilfish, Sea Hag and Wereseals are listed in the Hollow World boxed set, while the others are entirely my supposition.
5 - Described in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium here:
6 - Described in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium here:
7 - Described in the Savage Coast Monstrous Compendium here:
8 - Described in the AD&D Mystara Monstrous Compendium Appendix.

Dragon and Fairy Lands

The mighty dragons have their domains within the Hollow World as they have in the Outer World (1); often protecting some ancient races or creatures from stronger forces surrounding them. They are frequently allied with local fairies, which in the Hollow World normally take forms more suited to local culture amongst which they live (2). Lighthouse scholars classify dragons and fairies together because of ancient similarities and ties, both usually uninclined to submit to the will of the Immortals. Furthermore, ancient legends recount both fought the Immortals in the ancient past. Therefore, It is widely believed in the Lighthouse that Dragons and Fairies now in the Hollow World not only belong to some ancient races rare or extinct in the Outer World, but they must also have made a pact with Ka The Preserver or other Immortals. This assumption has been confirmed several times, as dragon and fairies have often come to the aid of our agents on several occasions. Certainly there are and always will be some dragons and fairies amongst the most learned and wise sages of The Lighthouse.

1 - See also my articleWho is Who in the Wyrmsteeth part IIabout Dragons of the Outer and the Hollow World in this same issue of Threshold magazine.
2 -
As the Tepictoton, described in HWR1 Sons of Azca and here:

The Mek Lands

The beings known as Meks have so far escaped our burning desire to learn more about them. They seem very elaborate metal constructs of some sorts, but they are inevitably aggressive and hostile and obviously unwilling to let us study them. Only once have we spotted one of their mysterious masters, an insect-like creature vaguely resembling a beetle (1), which avoided our attempt to communicate with him, later escaping in a flying machine. The only definitive information remains that Meks are more common in the Antarctic regions of Iciria. Other sightings of metallic constructs in the southern Sea of Yr have yet to be confirmed (2).

1 - Mek are canon creatures “created by a long-dead race of inhuman insect-like sorcerers” (Rules Cyclopedia). I created here: the Kolemek empire in the remote past of Mystara to explain them. Remains of the empire could also still exist in southern Davania, as hinted in Threshold issue #5.
2 - Such sightings should instead be related to Blacklore Elves, see the article by Havard in this same issue and also the work done by Robin here:

The Giants Lands

Several areas of the Hollow World are dominated by Giant cultures(1). Frost Giants are numerous in Northern Iciria and rule a great kingdom (2) between Antalian and Icevale lands. Fire Giants live in Western Krugel lands, Southern Nithia, Southern Suridal and near many volcanoes. Cloud Giants are common in Northeastern Iciria from Neathar lands to the Ostzee, and in the Floating continents. Hill Giants live in countless areas, ranging from the Southern Beastmen lands to the World Spine and Milenia. Their culture displays the greatest variations from clan to clan, with some very civilized and others quite savage. Stone Giants are more common around the World Spine and in the eastern deserts, and in Suridal. Storm Giants roam from the Southwest and the Anathy Archipelago to Jomphur. Hephaestons (3) live in the mountains north of Milenia. Garls (4) are common in the eastern World Spine. Cyclops tribes inhabits Southwestern Iciria and the Anathy Archipelago. The ancient Trolls (5) live in several areas of northeastern Iciria, while Giant Trolls (6) live among the hills between the Krugel, the Neathars and the Antalians. Giant Gargoyles (7) live between the Traldar lands and Milenia. Lastly, a mysterious and reclusive nation (8) with a mixed population of Giants, Fairies and ancient Trolls is rumored to exist in one of the Floating continents.

1 - Indicated in the Hollow World boxed set as living in the Hills and Mountains.
2 - Indicated
in the Iciria map with Kulear as capital.
3 - Canon
monster, not indicated in the Hollow World boxed set, but they seem appropriate for the area.
4 - Not
listed in the Hollow World boxed set, but they seem appropriate for the area.
5 - The
only humanoid mentioned in the Other Monsters section of the Hollow World boxed set (Adventure Book, page 30) underHills: I decided ancient Trolls, more intelligent and civilized than modern ones, could be more appropriate, as the trolls which inhabited ancient Grondheim as developed by Chimpman here:
6 - Gargantuan
Trolls are listed as creatures of the Hills in the Hollow World boxed set.
7 - Gargantuan
gargoyles are listed as creatures of the Hills in the Hollow World boxed set.
8 - A
good placement for Grondheim in my humble opinion:

The Anathy Archipelago and Jomphur

The area (1) is the home of a variety of cultures, from Colimans and Traldars to the Merry Pirates, Makai, Kara-Kara orcs, Oteino (2), Dwa (3) and Kumban (4), Water Elves (5), the newly arrived Heldannic Knights of Stonehaven, the powerful nation of Shahjapur, Araneas, other Sea Peoples (6) and, some believe, Kopru masterminds (7) just below the waves. Indeed, the Southern Atlass Ocean is called the Sea of Ships, as is traversed by vessels of the above mentioned cultures and also by ships from Milenia and the cultures of south western Jomphur: Asydh (8), Paeshen (9), Varellya (10) and Yanifey (11). Even the cultures from the other side of Jomphur, Blackmoor, Skandaharia and Thonia (12), tend to cruise toward the numerous human cultures of the Atlass Ocean rather than the predominantly non-human nations of Aerical and Suridal. Jomphur is also inhabited by other human cultures, such as Afridhi (13), Peshwa (14), Wan (15) and Yevan (16); these nations having less navigational skill, but still can be spotted occasionally on the seas.

1 - Many ideas taken from Andrew Theisen here:
2 - Seafaring
Oltecs, name created by me for the 2300 BC setting here: but previously supposed by Giampaolo Agosta and Atila Pires Dos Santos here:
3 - Name
invented by me, based on the seafaring Tanagoro that populated the Pearl Islands, may also live in the Sea Kingdoms of the Outer World and be similar to real world melanesians.
4 - Name
invented by me, supposed seafaring ancestors of the Tanagoro who colonized Yavdlom and several areas of Davania
5 - Seafaring
elves, ancestors of the Water Elves of the Minrothad Guilds.
6 - A
reference to the Frontierlands:
7 - A
reference to Adhuza:
8 - A
culture I supposed in Threshold issue #5 could be related to Nithians, Thothians and Aryptians and correspond to real world Middle East cultures.
9 - A
culture I supposed in Threshold issue #5 could be related to the Peshwa of ancient Blackmoor, ancestors of Ochalean and Yasukan and corresponding to real world South East Asian cultures.
10 - Created
by Bruce Heard in Dragon Magazine #157, see also here a timeline by Geoff Gander:
11 - In
canon the exact culture of the Yanifey was never specified, but looking at modern Alphatia images, Id link them to real world Persian culture.
12 - Cultures
from the Blackmoor campaign setting that should be similar to Europeans cultures.
13 - Also
from the Blackmoor campaign setting, they seem to have a culture vaguely related to Jennites and Yanifey.
14 - Also
from the Blackmoor campaign setting, they should be the ancestors of Ethengarians and other cultures similar to real world Mongolian people in Skothar.
15 - A
culture I suppose could be related to real world Chinese people, see also here: for more on Oriental cultures in Mystara.
16 - Name
I invented here to indicate possible ancestors to Slavic cultures in Mystara, such as modern Traladarans, Yevo and Vantalians: and

Nations of Suridal

Even if Aerical and Surical are inhabited by Insectoid, Reptilian and Demianimal races, as explained above, there is also a powerful human nation, Selhomarr (1), allied with the minor nations of Suur, Nevumm, Orimul and Ilarnn (2). The Selhomarrians are great mariners, and their ships are known to have reached almost every coast of the Hollow World at least once. Suridal is also the home of the Elves of Evergrun, the Halflings of Kenaton, and the Serpentines of Xaript (3), all of whom have considerable mercantile fleets. Needles to say, all seafaring cultures of the Hollow World waver between raiding or competing with their neighbors to intermittent trade and cooperation. The Lighthouse easily recruits willing explorers among them. Such is the nature of human curiosity, even in a place like the Hollow World, where every being is often bound to her birthplace and afraid to leave his home.

1 - Developed by Geoff Gander here:, based on his previous works on Lhomarr in the Outer World:
2 - Also
developed by Geoff Gander, see above.
3 - Cultures
of ancient Davania, see Threshold issue #5 and James Mishlers Age of Blackmoor: