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The Great History of Skothar

by Francesco Defferrari from Threshold Magazine issue 20

A timeline of the Eastern continent

[Image: Chung Eun scroll]
Caption: Ancient scroll from a Skotharian kingdom


The eastern continent of Mystara is certainly the one less developed and described in canon products. The first image of the continent was in the map done by Frank Mentzer1 in the D&D Master Set (1985) and shows a few political lines: the land of Nentsun in the north, the land of Thonia, the land of Jen, the Empire of the Great Khan, the Empire of Tangor, Minaea, Zyxl. The western peninsula of the continent is also shown as part of the Empire of Alphatia. And indeed in Dawn of the Emperors boxed set (1989), we discovered a little more information on that peninsula, Esterhold, occupied by Alphatia and inhabited by native Jennites. Much more about Skothar was detailed in the Hollow World Campaign set (1990), which gave a basic timeline of the whole planet and stated that two important cultures of the Hollow World, the Tanagoro and the Jennite peoples, came from Skothar. The campaign set also clarified that Blackmoor, the campaign created by Dave Arneson and detailed in the modules DA1-DA4 (1986-7) was meant to be set in the past of Skothar before the Great Rain of Fire which destroyed Blackmoor, and showed also a pre-cataclysmic map of the planet and the continent and a migration map of the peoples of Mystara over the millenia. Some additional information was later added in the Poor Wizard’s Almanacs I, II, and III (1992-4), mostly about Minaea, Jen and Esterhold. This is more or less the extent of the canon information available on the continent, which is much less than what we have about Brun and Davania (see Threshold issues #17, 18 and 5).
But obviously the active Mystara fan community soon tried to fill the void adding many ideas which would allow any DM to bring her/his players to Skothar to find plenty of adventures.
The purpose of this article is both to summarize the existing canon and fan material and to add my personal interpretation of Skothar, giving an unique feel and setting to the continent. In fact, Brun has been developed in canon and fan material as a sort of Mystaran Europe in the east and Savage West in the west, while Davania is portrayed as a Mystaran equivalent for unexplored South America and Africa. Skothar however cannot be “just” a Mystara Asia, because it is meant to contain also cultures which do not come from an asian inspiration (such as the Tanagoro, which are the Mystaran equivalent of African peoples) and is also meant to be the true origin of the modern Mystara humans. Yet many cultures inspired by Africa or Asia have already been used in canon products in Brun or Davania, therefore the human cultures of Skothar should have some unique twists to make them a bit different. I think these unique twists should be a great cultural melting pot and the heritage of Blackmoor.

The Skotharian Melting Pot

As the origin of the human race and the seat of the most powerful empires in Mystara’s history, Skothar reached a major cultural and material development before the Great Rain of Fire. First the Empire of Thonia, then Blackmoor, Tangor and the Empire of the Great Khan. All these became multi-ethnic empires inhabited by different human cultures, demihumans, rakasta, humanoids and many other races. So while in Brun we have fantasy cultures that mirror the ones of the real world, probably Skothar should have only mixed cultures which have greatly changed from their origin during the course of history by mixing with other cultures and races.

[Image: Great Rain of Fire]


The Great Rain of Fire which destroyed Blackmoor was 4,000 years before the present time of many Mystara campaigns, yet the fallout has not ended yet. Before the apocalypse, Skothar had huge empires with immense cities and common technomagic items. Looking at the pre-cataclysmic and post-cataclysmic map in the Hollow World Campaign set, it is easy to understand that the continent has suffered much more than the rest of Mystara, completely changing shape. Whole nations have been destroyed and new lands have risen. Skothar is dotted with ruins of its past, ruins feared and coveted because they contain the Heritage.

The Heritage of Blackmoor

Skotharian people know about Blackmoor and how it was supposedly destroyed by its own technomagic powers. They also tell their children about the Wasting disease which was caused by the failing of Blackmoorian technomagic items after the Great Rain of Fire. Many nations and groups therefore forbid the owning and usage of any Blackmoorian item on the penalty of death. Yet despite their inherent danger, and the will of the Immortals to destroy the dangerous heritage of technomagic, there are still people willing to take the risk to obtain incredible powers.

[Image: Adventurer finds Blackmoorian tech]
Caption: Adventurer finds Blackmoorian tech, original drawing by Justin Pfeil, aka warriorneedsfood on The Piazza, check his Keeps on the Borderland comic

The History of Skothar

The Northern Dragon Empire and the Eastern Court

In the remote past of Mystara, Skothar was completely under water. When the continent began to rise from the waves, its first inhabitants were dragons and the many races of the fairy folk: so were born the Northern Dragon Empire and the Eastern Court, or the Court of Twilight, which dominated Skothar for countless millennia2.

The ancient people

Then other races rose to prominence, those that now are called “the ancient people” of Skothar, but that were the young races at the time, in comparison to dragons and fairies. These races were sandfolk, geonids, fungoids, hivebrood, frogfolk and gatormen, creodonts and rakastodons. The creodonts were a race of intelligent carnivorous mammals now extinct, even if some scholars suspect they could be somehow related to the ancestry of lupins, hutaakans and gnolls. The rakastodons were the direct ancestors of the rakasta, who could have their origin in Skothar, even if some sages think instead their origin was in Davania.
All of these races competed for prominence in Skothar or came to dominate different regions of the continent. Other races came after them - garls, giants and brutemen. The relation between these three peoples is not clear. Garl may be the ancestors of giants. Brutemen are probably the ancestors of modern humans, or just a parallel evolution. Giants dominated Skothar for centuries, then their dominion fell, according to their myth, due to a world spanning war between fire and frost giants. Eventually brutemen became the dominant race in Brun, while it’s not clear how numerous they ever were in Skothar. It seems that the rakastodon, and all the rakasta races which evolved from it, dominated large parts of Skothar for a long time, and so did the hivebrood, particularly in Eastern Skothar.
To the present day some of these ancient races have almost disappeared, while others are still numerous and thriving in many regions of the continent, even if they do not dominate it now like once they did in times past.

Humans, rakasta and other races

Humanity was born in Skothar, maybe from a group of brutemen, maybe from the will of some Immortals or manipulations of dragons or fairies. Either way the new race became more and more numerous and diversified greatly in shape and look, establishing different groups in different parts of the continent. They were not however the dominant race of Skothar, not yet at least. The rakasta were as numerous and as different as the humans, and the other ancient races were not extinct as well. The relations between humans and rakasta varied between conflict, competition, distrust and cooperation. This pushed both people to exploration and migration, and slowly humans and rakasta migrated toward the central islands and Brun in great numbers. Still many rakasta groups remained in Skothar, differentiating into the rakasta breeds of Skothar: sherkasta, pardasta, snow pardasta, cloud pardasta, dwarf pardasta, lyncasta, grey rakasta, jungle rakasta, sand rakasta, steppe rakasta, wild rakasta, fisher rakasta, rust rakasta, flathead rakasta, bay rakasta, golden rakasta, marbled rakasta and Skotharian simbasta3. Humans differentiated as well into many different breeds, the most important ones being the Neathar, Oltecs and Tanagoro.
It should be also noted that some sages dispute that the origin of humanity was in Skothar, and believe instead it was in the modern Alphatia, or Bellisaria, or near these lands. Others think the origin of rakasta was instead in Davania. In any case, it is certain that many different human and rakasta peoples populated Skothar in great numbers quite early in the history of the continent.
150,000 BC Rakastodons and Cave Rakasta are already present in Southern Skothar. The new human species has its origin possibly in the region of modern eastern Minaea or the Gulf of Tangor, from a group of brutemen.
100,000 BC Rakasta are differentiating into the modern breeds. The new human species put some pressure on them forcing or pushing them to migrate to other regions of Skothar.
75,000 BC Rakasta migrations move to northern Skothar and toward Brun.
50,000 BC The expansion and growing numbers of humans force many rakasta groups to disperse across Skothar or leave the continent to the north.

Humans spread and rise to prominence

45,000 BC Wars erupt in several regions of central and southern Skothar between humans and rakasta. Even if the rakasta stand their ground for centuries, slowly the humans gain prominence and settle more territories. The three main branches of humans, Neathar, Oltecs and Tanagoro are now recognizable. The Neathar move slowly to northern and western Skothar, the Oltec to central and southwestern Skothar, the Tanagoro settle southern and eastern Skothar.
39,000 BC Expansion of sherkasta, simbasta and pardasta in southern Skothar and Bellisaria has to compete with the expansion of Oltec men from southern Skothar to the central plains.
35,000 BC More Oltec people settle Bellisaria, forcing other rakasta migrations. (Most of the oltec history come from A Timeline of the Oltec Man by Átila Pires dos Santos and Giampaolo Agosta, see end of the article. The Oltec group settling Bellisaria would be the ancestor of the Mystaran Amerindians Oltecs which will colonize southern Brun and Davania).
30,000 BC Dwa Tanagoro reach the Sea Kingdoms, establishing alliances with underwater races. (Dwa Tanagoro are my creation inspired by Melanesian people, from an idea by Giulio Caroletti).
20,000 BC The Oltecs of Skothar diversified in several groups like the Jen-Yal, Peshwah, Jen-Kha, Jen-Wan and Mawa, spreading through the continent. (Caroletti, Agosta, dos Santos and me, Jen-Yal, Jen-Kha and Peshwah should correspond roughly to Mongolian, Jen-Wan to Sino-Tibetan, Mawa to Austronesians and Tai-Austroasiatic).
19,000 BC Harimau-Belang sherkasta culture of the lowlands, and the Tagh sherkasta culture of the mountains develop in Skothar (Neri).
16,000 BC The rakasta leader Ninfangle leads a great migration of rakasta out of Skothar to Brun and Davania. (Dalmonte, see end of the article).
15,000 BC The rising power of carnifex in Davania leads to some of them reaching southern Skothar and trying to gain a foothold in the continent pushing gatormen and frogfolk against humans and rakasta. While the strategy has some success and leads to the increase of the territory of these races, it fails ultimately when the Immortals imprison the carnifex (M3 module, Geoff Gander, Threshold issue #11).
13,000 BC Several regions of Skothar are still dominated by lizardfolk, gatormen and frogfolk, as is the region of the future Blackmoor (Rafael).
12,000 BC Metal working, agriculture, ceramics and the domestication of animals spread in Skothar, mostly coming from the Oltecs who have learned it from dwarves and gnomes of Brun (modified from James Mishler).
11,000 BC Lhomarrian people develop in south western Skothar from Oltecs and Maharian Neathar and spread to Bellissaria and the Sea Kingdoms, eventually reaching Davania. (Lhomarrr is a creation of Geoff Gander, Maharian Neathars are the southern, Mediterranean-like population imagined by Caroletti, Agosta and Gander, see end of the article).
10,400 BC Most of the Lhomarrians are pushed out of southern Skothar by the Tanagoro, some settle in the Alphatian Sea, Esterhold and Minaea (Geoff Gander, Threshold issue #11).
8,400 BC The Lhomarrians of Davania have founded a seafaring empire. They found colonies in other regions of Davania, the Alphatian Sea and southwestern Skothar (Geoff Gander).

[Image: Lhomarrian temple]
Caption: Lhomarrian temple

8,303 BC Mythical date of the first Khan of Skothar founding the nation of Khar. The ancient fairy Eastern Court is possibly involved in the creation of the nation, and called by humans the Celestial Court. Dragons are involved as well with the first Khan himself being a dragon (Author, Rafael, MOrient project)4.
8,000 BC The Valoin migrate to Northern Brun. The Skandaharians are people born in Northern Skothar, mostly from Neathar populations and Valoin. Maharian Neathars settle Alphatian Sea and Southeastern Brun (Caroletti, Agosta and dos Santos). Dunharian Neathar settle north-western Skothar (Dunharians are the Celtic-like Neathars imagined by Caroletti, Agosta and dos Santos).
8,006 - 7,022 BC The great war between Carnifex and Lhomarrians in Davania marginally touches also the Alphatian Sea and southwestern Skothar where Carnifex agents try again to push gatormen and frogfolk against humans, with mixed success (Gander, Author).
7,225 BC The region of future Thonia is now ruled by sorcerer-kings called the Red Coven. (Rafael).

The Empires of Thonia and Blackmoor

7,000 BC Thonian Neathars conquers the land of the Vantalians Yevan, displacing them to the north. First nucleus of Old Thonia. Some Yevan merge with Oltec tribes in the west, later forming the Afridhi people. (Yevan was a term invented by me in Threshold issue #9 for the ancestors of the Vantalians, the Mystara Slavic people, in Skothar. The Afridhi leader Toska Rusa in the DA series of modules has a Russian name, so a Slavic influence fits with them. Their Yevan ancestry could also explain their later hate for Thonia).
6,868 BC First human record of elves in northern Skothar. Starport in the north is now the capital of the Red Coven (Maiden’s Timeline). It is possible that halflings arrived at the same time. The elves belong to the Genander clan and are related to the Genalleth and Geffronell who would later settle Wendar and Denagoth in Brun (Author, Håvard, Threshold issue #10).
6,000 BC Small groups of dwarves and gnomes from Brun begin to settle western Skothar (James Mishler, Blackmoor d20).
5,632 BC City of Lum founded by descendants of Lhomarrians, controls trade between Bellissaria and Skothar on the current western coast (JTR, Author).
5,500 BC Thonia, learning advanced agriculture and iron working from the dwarves, rises to prominence in central Skothar (James Mishler).
5,200 BC Possible date of the founding of Mohacs, King Euphemus makes it the capital of Thonia (JTR). The Kus, a human group descended from Tanagoro and Oltec blood, found the realm of Saku in the eastern mountains (JTR, Author).
5,050 BC Mythical date of the halfling migration from Davania to Skothar under the guidance of the heroine Tilla. (Ripvanwormer).

[Image: Thonian Princes]
Caption: Thonian Princes in old book

5,025 BC5 Coup in Thonia against the sorcerer king and creation of the Imperial Council, Robert I of Geneva is the new king of the Thonians, Year 0 of the Thonian calendar (Mishler, Blackmoor d20). The fey people in the woods of Thonia have good relations with the humans (PC1).
5,022 BC Robert I of Geneva founds a first settlement in the area of Blackmoor town (Blackmoor d20).
5,000 BC Mawa Oltecs reach the Sea Kingdoms from southern Skothar. (Mawa Oltecs are my supposition from Austronesian/Polynesian people and were already mentioned in several issues of Threshold as partial ancestors of several populations in northern Davania, Alphatian Sea, Pearl Islands, Ochalea, Thanegioth archipelago and Ierendi, an idea also mentioned by Caroletti, Agosta and Dos Santos in the ethnographic histories, see end of the article).
4,900 BC: Legendary birth date of the dwarven hero Urbestar Kazakhum in Skothar (DA1). Telo of Regia is the first Thonian King to declare himself Emperor (JTR). The Empire of Thonia expands into central Skothar and clashes with the Peshwah, Valemen and Skandaharians to the north and Tanagoro to the south, but fails to conquer their territories (James Mishler).
4,800 BC Sakkrad of Saku is traditionally the first great Togoro of the Tanagoro. Skandaharian raiders start to pillage the southern coasts (JTR).
4,780 BC Thonia completes the conquest of the Western Marches (JTR). Thonia contacts the Deres, a nomad people of mixed Oltec and Tanagoro descent, of Yuila al Kaloon, the Sea of Grass, trading with them (Biles).
4,700 BC A successful plot by the ruler of the rival western city state of Shefa succeeds in fragmenting the Empire of Thonia in Ten Principalities (JTR). Thonian aggression against the Deres leads to their invasion and a Deres dynasty ruling for a brief time the southern part of Thonia (Biles).
4,600 BC Six of the Thonian houses agree to an arrangement that keep the Imperium restricted to themselves and the Empire is reunified as the Second Republic (JTR).
4,554 BC The Bloody Duke, a sadist and architectural megalomaniac, reigns in Blackmoor Castle. He designs and builds a vast, multi-level dungeon beneath castle Blackmoor, connecting to natural caves and to even older, deeper passages (Blackmoor d20).
4,525 BC Temple of Id is destroyed in Blackmoor: treachery within the human faction creates a deep rift among the elves. A faction of elves vows to turn their backs on humans and all civilization, becoming the Westryn. The elf king Uhlmar curses them and their leader, Uhlmar’s daughter who will become known as the Black Queen, and plague the western woods with undeath for centuries to come. The others who accept mingling with the humans become the Cumasti, also later known as Meriallis (Blackmoor d20, Threshold issue #10).
4,500 BC Republic of Thonia annexes the territories of its Southern and Eastern Marches (JTR).
4,500 BC Beastmen invade northern Skothar. In Afridhi lands, the beastmen are exterminated, hence the land becomes known as Goblin Kush. Duchy of the Peaks founded (James Mishler). Urbestar Kazakhum establish the Northern Delving mines, in the Crystal Peaks mountains, just north of the northern border of the Thonian Empire. It is said that these mines are the most prominent example of dwarvish architecture throughout Mystara (DA1, LoZompatore).
4,487 BC First war between dwarves and beastmen (JTR).
4,450 BC Beastmen eventually reach Thonia and endanger the Second Republic (JTR).
4,426 BC Skandaharians of chief Skuld sack Mohacs, invade Thonia and a Skandaharian dynasty begins in the Empire, the Third Republic (Rafael, JTR). The Third Republic of Thonia creates the North colony as a buffer zone (Mishler).
4,400 BC Kingdom of Satum founded in the Tangor Chain by Tanagoro people with some Oltec blood (JTR, Author).
4,346 BC Revolt in Thonia and end of the Skandaharian dynasty (Rafael).
4,325 BC The Northlands are settled by exiles and criminals from the Thonian Empire, who call themselves "The Unwanted". The first settlements are built far from the Empire's border, in a wild and off-centre region claimed by the far Duchy of the Peaks in what will become the Duchy of Ten. It is known that elves and halflings and the Egg of Coot already live in the area (DA1, LoZompatore).
4,300 BC The House of Iyx rises to prominence in Thonia (JTR). Ten lesser noblemen families, opposing the new dynasty emigrate to the Ten region. Upon their arrival they find an overpopulated area, so they are both obliged to establish new settlements in the nearby wilderness or to drop any hope to rule and to act as traders and merchants, but help develop the land (DA1). The northern dwarves are engaged in their third major conflict with the beastmen. In the south, the new coastal kingdom of Satum devastates and absorbs the older Saku kingdom and makes contact with Thonia. The Peshwah move into the Hak. The Afridhi begin to worship Zugzul (JTR).
4,250 BC Establishment of the settlement of Blackmoor as an official settlement of the Thonian Empire in the Northlands (DA1, LoZompatore). Among the founders is also the mortal form of the Immortal Khoronus (WotI). The settlement of Vestfold is founded soon after. The whole area is annexed to the Thonian Empire and called "The Province of the North" (DA1, LoZompatore). It is possible that the fey’s migration to the Northlands happened in this period. The fey were disappointed by the increasingly authoritarian government of the Thonian Empire (PC1, LoZompatore).
4,230 - 4,220 BC Thonian empire defeated by the Unwanted in the first war of Ten. (Rafael).
4,210 BC The Mage Wars begin in Thonia (Blackmoor d20). By this date Thonian traders are reaching to southern Skothar and Bellissaria (JTR).
4,150 BC: Some scholars and wise men establish the Cult of the Frog in the Province of the North (DA2, LoZompatore).
4,146 BC Two powerful wizards, the “Wizard of the Wood“ and “Wizard of the Vale“, allies with the Thonian crown, stabilizing the Empire (Rafael).
4,129 BC End of the Mage Wars in Thonia and Blackmoor (Blackmoor d20).
4,100 BC Khoronus the wizard is still alive as one of the founders of Blackmoor, he will later become an Immortal discovering time travel, and preserving descendants of his family in a far away world in anticipation of the Great Rain of Fire (Dalmonte, Mishler). The cultists of the Frog order settle in the Dismal Swamps, fleeing from Blackmoorish pogroms due to the Froggies human sacrifices. The cultists establish the Temple of the Frog in the middle of the swamps (DA2, LoZompatore).
4,115 BC The Wizards’ Cabal is officially founded. (Blackmoor d20).
4,100 BC Thonia attacks Ten but is defeated (DA1, Blackmoor d20). The region is officially called Duchy of Ten. (DA1, LoZompatore).
4,050 BC The Duke of the Peaks disappears and his wife Sonia Sholako becomes the new Duchess (DA1, see also the Duchy of the Peaks campaign in this same issue of Threshold).
4,055 BC The Egg of Coot appears and modifies the land, connecting the Black Sea with the North Sea and joining the raiding capabilities of the Western and Eastern Skandaharians. Skandaharian raids become much more dangerous than before (DA1, LoZompatore).
4,040 BC Uther Andahar is born (Blackmoor d20).
4,031 BC Marfeldt the barbarian begins his rampage through the north (DA1, Blackmoor d20).
4,030 BC First invasion of Blackmoor by the Egg of Coot, Blackmoor city damaged in the attack (Blackmoor d20).
4,028-27 BC Orc king Funk I controlled by the Egg conquers Blackmoor and terrorizes the north until defeated by adventurers (Blackmoor d20).
4,025 BC Iyx becomes the new Thonian Emperor under the name Iyx I, Year 1,000 of the Thonian Calendar. Toska Rusa, the Afridhi's high priestess, receives from her Immortal Zugzul a grand vision of conquest. The Afridhi start their campaign by invading the nearby lands of the Valemen (DA1, LoZompatore, Blackmoor d20). Existence of tieflings discovered in the North (Blackmoor d20).
4,023 BC The Afridhi complete their conquest of the Vales (DA1, Blackmoor d20).
4,020 BC The Baron of Blackmoor is killed during a Skandaharian raid. Uther becomes the new Baron. Battle of Berne between the Barony of Blackmoor and the Duchy of Ten. The Barony of Blackmoor forces a route of the Ten army. Baron Uther Andahar distinguishes himself in the battle. The Afridhi invade the plains of Hak, inhabited by the Peshwah nomad people (DA1, LoZompatore, Blackmoor d20).
4,019 BC Thonian Emperor Iyx hears for the first time about the Afridhi and their movements on the plains of Hak. Careless about these savages and their actions, Iyx just sends them diplomats, who are sacrificed to Zugzul (DA1, LoZompatore).
4,018 BC The plains of Hak are under the Afridhi's control. Their army attacks the Duchy of Ten (DA1. LoZompatore).
4,015 BC Blackmoor Baron Uther Andahar valiantly fights in the military campaign between the Province of the North and the Egg of Coot. (DA1, LoZompatore).
4,012 BC The Duchy of the Peaks allies with the Afridhi, who are completing their conquest of the Duchy of Ten. The Duchy of Ten falls within the year (DA1, LoZompatore).
4,011 BC The Afridhi establish a tyrannical government over the Duchy of Ten and attack the North, but are repelled. Emperor Iyx accuses the northern baron of treason but the governor’s army encounters opposition and cannot arrest Uther. (DA1, LoZompatore).
4,010 BC Emperor Iyx orders again the arrest of Baron Uther but the Thonian army is defeated in the battle of the Root River. Battle of the Neck: Uther and the allied Barons defeat the Afridhi. Uther is crowned first King of Blackmoor. (DA1, LoZompatore). The Thonian Empire allies with the Peshwah against the Afridhi (DA3, LoZompatore). The Docrae halfling escape from Afridhi slavery and settle near Blackmoor (Blackmoor d20).

[Image: King Uther]
Caption: King Uther leading Blackmoorians in battle

4,009-4,005 BC This is the time of the Five Victories of Blackmoor: two against the Egg of Coot, one against the Skandaharians led by Thorsen One Thumb, previously repelled from Thonia by Taha Markovic, the Duke of Borno, the fourth against the Thonian army occupying the lower Province of the North and the fifth against the Afridhi at Blackmoor city. Toska Rusa decides to suspend any military operations against Blackmoor and to move around it from the south. An Afridhi army is sent to conquer the Dragon Hills. (DA1, Blackmoor d20).
4,005 BC: The alien spaceship the F.S.S. Beagle crash-lands on Mystara, in the Valley of the Ancients, a desert lowland south of the Blackmoor Kingdom. The barbarian tribes inhabiting the desert start raiding and looting the landing site (DA3, LoZompatore). On the Beagle spaceship, Security Chief Stephen Rocklin rebels against Captain Bork Riesling and escapes, crashing in the Dismal Swamps, not far from the Temple of the Frog. Stephen and his comrades are revered as gods and start reinforcing the Cult of the Frog with their equipment and knowledge (DA2-DA3, LoZompatore). The Iron Duke Taha Markovic is appointed as the new Governor of the North Western Province (DA1, LoZompatore).
4,004 BC University of Blackmoor built (DA1). Zugzul orders Toska Rusa to built the Well of Souls. The Immortal prophecies that only people not yet born may destroy the artefact. (DA4, LoZompatore).
4,003 BC The Blackmoorians learn about the crash landing of the Beagle and send a first scout mission, with the hope of getting aid or allies against Thonia. The scouts reach the spaceship, but they are repelled by its high-tech defences (DA3, LoZompatore).
4,002 BC The Blackmoorish noble Bascom Ungolian leads an expedition in the lands of the Egg of Coot in order to free his wife, kidnapped by the Egg's minions. The expedition is ambushed and Bascom disappears (DA1, LoZompatore). A group of Thonian mages establish the Wizards’ Cabala and sets up a rebellion in the town of Vestfold, with the intention of destroying the local University. The rebellion is suppressed and the surviving mages flee and hide; their leader, Tamis Azkanikin ("The Green Mage") hides in the ruins of the tower of Old North Watch (DA1, LoZompatore).
4,001 BC Uther is kidnapped by the agents of the Iron Duke of Borno. The rulership is entrusted to the Council of the Regents (DA1, LoZompatore). Uberstar Kazakhum is captured by beastmen. The dwarves set up right away a military force to free him, but they are defeated and pushed back until the gates of Northern Delving, where they are besieged by the beastmen. This is the start of the Sixth War between dwarves and beastmen. Lortz Kazakhum, the son of Uberstar, becomes ad-interim Regent of the Mines. The siege forces him to interrupt any communications with Blackmoor and the humans (DA1, LoZompatore).
4,000 BC A group of adventurers from AC 1000 reaches Blackmoor through the Comeback Inn, and manages to free king Uther. (DA1 main event, LoZompatore). Thonia establishes formal contact and trade with the Tanagoro Empire (Håvard).
3,999 BC Uther sends an expedition of adventurers to the Temple of the Frog in order to free an important noble. During the attack, Stephen Rocklin manages to escape and rebuilds the Order of the Frog. The Blackmoorians get some high tech devices from the battle site (DA2, LoZompatore). Some months later, a deserter from the Beagle spaceship brings a Blackmoorian expedition back. The expedition helps the alien against Stephen Rocklin, but the captain refuses to ally with the Blackmoorians, who however are able to bring some alien equipment to the University. (DA3, Return to the Temple of the Frog). After this incursion the crew of the Beagle becomes more and more dissatisfied (WotI, LoZompatore).
3,998 BC The Blackmoorians recruit a group of adventurers from AC 1000, in order to move around the Zugzul prophecy about the Well of the Souls. The group reaches Tor Kurram and destroys the Well of the Souls, thus ending the continuum perturbations and the alternate timeline (DA4, LoZompatore).
3,997 BC Ogdoban Treel kills the entire crew of the Beagle and provokes its destruction, in which the only survivor, Rheddrian, turns into an implosion. Rheddrian is imprisoned into the Mirror but becomes an Immortal (Wrath of the Immortals boxed set, exact date supposed).
3,995 BC Dragonborn from the Spine of the Dragon mountains contact Blackmoor, Year 1,030 of the Thonian Calendar (Blackmoor d20 - 4th ed campaign time).
3,950 BC Guidarezzo, later to become an Immortal, is an extremely famous musician in Blackmoor and Thonia. (Dalmonte).
3,900 BC The Afridhi capture the Western Marches of Thonia. Emperor Neryx II is deposed and the Iyx dynasty ends (JTR). Thonia has fragmented into principalities, duchies and minor entities, while Blackmoor rises as a major power with the new Technomancy (James Mishler). Blackmoor starts to predominate in naval power over Skandaharia and begins trading with the Deres and Tanagoro to the south (Biles). Afridhi mixing with Thonians create the Nasuuan people (Caroletti, Author).
3,750 BC Blackmoor begins to use Black powder (Mishler).
3,743 BC Afridhi under Eos Cynex besiege Mohacs but are repelled by the intervention of Blackmoorian troops (JTR).
3,740 BC The iron-wielding Janbu culture of the southern Skothar plains drives the Ibu jungle tribes eastward. Refugees flee into the sea, with survivors landing on northern Davania and Brun (possible ancestors of the Karimari). Southern Skothar is partitioned between the old Tanagoro and Janbu tribes of the plains, the Satum kingdom of the mountains, the Ibu jungle tribes, and the Kho tribes (Oltec descended) of the desert. To the west, a fire priest from the Oltec nations shook the Bellissarian kingdoms (JTR, Author).
3,730 BC A devastating attack by beastmen and Ash goblins on Blackmoor city takes and burns the capital. The King and his family are dead, the heir supposedly missing (Author, supposed from Age of the Wolf Blackmoor 4th ed vapourware product).
3,726 BC Age of the Wolf in Blackmoor, the capital city is abandoned and as the heir of the kingdom is still missing the other cities have become de-facto independent states as factions debate and compete on the future of the Kingdom. The Afridhi, the Egg and the Skandaharians take this opportunity to attack Blackmoor. Local heroes rise, helped also by the elite dragonborn bombardiers of the city state of Rodhin, to face these menaces (Blackmoor 4th ed, Author).
3,715 BC The heir of the Blackmoor crown, Uther III, is found and crowned thanks to the action of some heroes and the help of the dragonborn of Rodhin. Blackmoor again defeats its enemies and returns to greatness; the city is rebuilt (Author, from Blackmoor 4th ed).
3,700 BC The Afridhi under Sola Carnix conquer and burn Mohacs, prompting a reaction of Blackmoor which attacks the Afridhi Empire (JTR). Blackmoor discovers precious minerals in the Sea of Grass and begins to attack the Deres tribes (Biles).
3,680 BC Blackmoor destroys the Afridhi Empire, enslaving most of the Afridhi populations. (Mishler). The Nasuuan migrate to the southeast of Thonia (Caroletti, Author).
3,650 BC Blackmoor exterminates beastmen and humanoids in central Skothar (Mishler). Blackmoor extermination of the Afridhi and racism against the Peshwah leads to their migration north and south. Some Afridhi will merge with Neathar people and form the Jen, while the Peshwah in parts go north and to Brun, to later became the Etesh, ancestors of the Ethengarians, while others settle Central Skothar in the plains and the mountains mixing with the related Jen-Kha and Jen-Wan or with the Mawa people, forming the Paesh (See my articles in Threshold issue #2 and #9 about Etesh, Wan and Paesh people. Paesh should be the equivalent of Tai-Austroasiatics).
3,620 BC The Treaty of Dragonia establishes the new Holy Thonian Empire, de facto controlled by Blackmoor, whose King Uther V is also the Emperor and Patriarch of the Thonian High Church (Mishler, JTR).
3,600 BC Blackmoor explorers travel all over Skothar and reaches Brun and Davania (Mishler). Blackmoor has completed the conquest of the Sea of Grass in Central Skothar, building many mines with dwarven engineers and Deres and Tanagoro slaves (Biles).
3,550 BC Robert the Mariner rounds the Horn of Zyxl and became the first man to circumnavigate Skothar (JTR).
3,525 BC Blackmoor and Thonian explorers chart the Great Inland Ocean and western Brun (JTR).
3,500 BC Declaration of Purity: the Thonian Church declares a great Crusade against the Goblin races in Brun, considered by many an excuse to engage in massive colonization of the rest of the world (Mishler). Gemstone dragon sorcerers begin their studies to reach immortality and contain Blackmoor (Dragonlord trilogy). Blackmoor expansion in northern Skothar pushes the Yali people, ancestors of Huleans and other central Brun populations, to the Alphatian Sea and Brun (Agosta and dos Santos). The Blackmoor civilisation is flourishing thanks to the meteoric rise in technology. Rakasta, considered similar to beastmen, are not considered proper subjects of Blackmoor and often persecuted. The rakasta tribes living in Skothar near Blackmoor seek shelter into the wilderness, where they become isolated and aggressive, refusing any contact with humans (this happens mostly to the Mountain rakastas and Tagh sherkastas which live near the Blackmoorian borders) (Giulio Caroletti). More elves from Evergrun, the Anuliinde, settle Thonia and Blackmoor and technomagic is brought to Evergrun (JTR, Peronnet).
3,480-20 BC First Beastmen Crusade, Blackmoor defeats the Draconic Empire in Brun and pushes the beastmen north, establishing colonies in Brun (Mishler).
3,400 BC The Immortal Ssu-ma sponsors friendship between sherkasta and pachydermions of Skothar, helping the sherkasta contact the packydermions of Patera and giving them and other rakasta some help to resist Blackmoorian aggression (Giulio Caroletti). Blackmoor explorers had charted the shores of Bellissaria, Oceania and large stretches of the Davanian coast (JTR).
3,370 BC Start of a massive rebellion of the Thonian Empire against Blackmoor supremacy in Skothar (Mishler).
3,350 BC Elven war between Evergrun and Blackmoor, mostly fought on the sea and by proxy, as the elves try to end Blackmoorian slave trade, particularly in Bellissaria and the central seas (JTR).
3,335 BC Battle of Marban Green, a decisive Blackmoorian victory over Thonian rebels (Mishler).
3,330 BC Concordance of Mohacs re-establishes the supremacy of Blackmoor, but founds the Principalities of the Republic of Thonia, thanks to the generosity of the reformer King Uther VII Andahar, "The Red". Involvement of the Serpentine Empire of Davania is discovered, and wars begin against them, involving also the Sea Kingdoms. Separation of the Church of Blackmoor and the Church of Thonia (Mishler). In the Tanagoro lands the Church of Korotiku and the Church of Thanatos (infiltrated by the Serpentine) struggle for dominance through a secret war (Mishler).
3,310 BC Beginnings of the Wars of Unification in the Tanagoro kingdoms after the defeat of the Church of Thanatos (Mishler). A dynasty from Satum wins the Janbu tribes and creates the First Tanagoro Empire. Satum however does not join the Empire (JTR, Author).

[Image: Blackmoorians in Tangor]
Caption: Blackmoorian traders arriving in Tangor

3,300 BC Uther VII dies, at 80, while destroying the Serpentine Empire’s capital in Davania and is succeeded by his grandson Unther VIII (Mishler).
3,285 BC Edicts of Westport end slavery in Blackmoor, but the slave trade continues in Thonia and other colonies (Mishler).
3,280 BC The Wars of Unification end in the Tanagoro Kingdoms (Mishler)
3,270 BC Uther VIII pass away and his less than capable son Melyon III lets mercantile corporations gain much power during his reign (Mishler).
3,260 BC Stardock Accords grants to the Skandaharians kingdoms colonies in the western sea from Skothar to Brun, in the Kingdom of the Giants of Gandhar in the Isle of Dawn and on Zyxl. Tanagoro expeditions to Oceania, Sea Kingdoms, northwestern Davania and the Serpent Peninsula (Mishler).
3,255 BC Melyon III dies drunk. (Mishler).
3,250 BC Colonial Exchange Accords, signed by four of the Tanagoro Kingdoms, the Golden Empire, the Empire of Evergrun and the United Hin Dominions. Several elves and hin arrive in Tanagoro lands (Mishler).
3,248 BC King Marrok II of Blackmoor closes the city park to let wolves run free. Rumors abound about hm being a werewolf (Mishler).
3,240 BC Skandaharians reach the moon (Matera). (Mishler).
3,235 BC Blackmoorians reach the moon too (Mishler).
3,230 BC Goblinfolk and beastmen reappear in Skothar spreading destruction, brought into the Skotharian Shadowdeep by the Serpentine (Mishler).
3,220-3,200 BC Exterminating again all the beastmen in Skothar, Blackmoor and Thonia wage the Second Beastmen Crusade in Brun and Davania (Mishler). Blackmoor tries to use beholders for military purposes but the creatures escape (Robin).
3,200 BC Blackmoorians, Skandaharians and elves found colonies on Matera (Mishler). Skotharian sherkasta and pachydermions from Kompor-Thap build a magical gate, the Svargadvara, that links Mystara to Patera (Giulio Caroletti). The immortal to be Cochere leads many gyerians west to the Alphatian sea and Brun to escape Blackmoorian power. (Dalmonte). Belorfiwyn from Clan Anuliinde invents dirigible balloon (Peronnet).
3,194 BC Lunar Accords between Blackmoor, Skandaharia and the Elven Empire (Mishler).
3,180 BC Blackmoorian space vessels begin the exploration of the solar system (Mishler).
3,150 BC Blackmoor develops TransPlanar technomagic gates (Mishler).
3,150-3,135 BC Dragon Wars, war between the Dragonlord of Blackmoor and the dragons. Blackmoor develops giant steamtech robots, ancestors of the Earthshakers. Later an agreement is reached between dragons and Blackmoor but the gemstone dragons are exiled from Mystara (Dragonlord trilogy, JTR).
3,120 BC Automatons developed by Blackmoor and later by other nations, such as the Elven Empire (Mishler, HW boxed set).
3,100 BC Blackmoorian space vessels reach other solar systems (Mishler). Oltecs of Alphatia and Bellissaria settle the region of current Esterhold on Skothar (HW boxed set). They are former inhabitants of the kingdom of Atlan displaced by the rise of Asydh people in the region, lead by the hero Gilgamesh (see my article on the past of Alphatia in Threshold issue #11 and the Codex Immortalis). Start of the reign of the emperor of Blackmoor/Thonia Korin II (DA1) Anuliinde Clan clashes with the empire of Blackmoor for ecological reasons. The retaliations are severe and the elves are put under military rule (Peronnet).
3,088 BC Start of the reign of Nial II (DA1)
3,080 BC Start of the reign of Ruxpin I (DA1)
3,077 BC Start of the reign of Oser I (DA1)
3,060 BC In Central Skothar the Blackmoorian government of Kaloonland began the 'Land Reclamation Project' to render the land habitable once the mines finally all gave out. In the cooler northern regions, some progress was made in cleansing the waters and developing irrigated farms. In the very heart of the Yuila al Kaloon, a group of magitechnicians began experimenting with life forms which would consume polluted soil and water and convert it to fertile soil (Biles).
3,054 BC Start of the reign of Bodmin I (DA1)
3,050 BC Year in which I set the New Blackmoor campaign (set in the Known World in Brun) in Threshold issue #2. Blackmoor discovers Patera (JTR).

[Image: Blackmoorian Power]
Caption: Allegory of Blackmoorian power in Skothar, with Tangor and Jennite men kneeling

3,040 BC Start of the reign of Halkad IV (DA1) Space vessels allow the colonization of other solar systems (Mishler).
3,030 BC Start of the reign of Ning I (DA1)
3,014 BC Start of the reign of Melnik III (DA1)
3,005 BC Start of the reign of Reger I (DA1) The Anuliinde, led by Belorfiwyn, flee Blackmoor on 10 gigantic dirigible balloons they have secretly built (Peronnet).
3,010-3,001 BC War, chaos and anarchy reign in the Tanagoro kingdoms, Thonia and other nations, spread by a strange genetic disease created by the Serpentine Empire (Mishler).
3,001 BC In Central Skothar, the seeding of a 400 square mile region is complete, and the supplies have been put in place to extend the project (Biles). In Evergrun Clan Anuliinde finds shelter among Clan Nadriendel. Both clans are forced to escape on the dirigibles when the cataclysm strikes (Peronnet).

The Great Rain of Fire and its Aftermath

3,000 BC The Great Rain of Fire obliterates the Blackmoorian civilisation. In north western Skothar the destruction is massive. The region of the Kingdom of Blackmoor is completely depopulated and only undead “survive” (Canon, Author). Thonia is almost completely abandoned in the course of a few months and all the survivors migrate west to the coast (Canon). Nyx saves some Thonian wizards who will migrate south and form the Deathless of Central Skothar (Burns, Author). Other southern wizards become shadelings to save themselves from the cataclysm and the Wasting (Burns, Author). In southern Skothar, the sherkasta sages gather their people and use the Svargadvara to transport them to Patera, where the sherkasta settles in the jungles south of Kompor-Thap. As a result, Kata Ng, the White Sherkasta, becomes Immortal, but the Svargadvara is destroyed (see note 3). Fall of the First Tanagoro Empire, many Tanagoro people are brought to the Hollow World to preserve their cultures in the following centuries (HW boxed set). The Second of The Seven Tangor Empires is born, and the four elite units of the Empire's army that exist to these days, the Dragon army, the Rakasta army, The Allies army and the Noble army (Author). Utnapishtim brings his people to safety leaving Esterhold for Bellissaria (Dalmonte). The displacements caused by the catastrophe bring many Paesh and Wan people down to the Tangor coast (Author, MOrient project). The cataclysm creates the Fiery Serpent Sea in the northwestern coast of Skothar, which will become Nentsun. The region is uninhabitable for centuries but eventually becomes warmer and is colonized by lush vegetation despite its northern latitude (Sarikhan). The Nasuuan are hit hardly by the cataclysm but manage to survive in the colder climate. Slowly hardships and external attacks push them even more to the north (Author).
2,995 BC In Central Skothar, the shifting of the axis causes disastrous storms and freak weather for decades in the wake of the Great Rain of Fire, and many creatures are strangely mutated. Even more of the land becomes polluted waste, the Keres change their name to 'Waros', which means survivors in their tongue, and dubb the land that had once been theirs as 'Drakhaba al Kaloon', the Sea of Corruption (Biles).
2,990 BC After the Great Rain of Fire, only 5 elven dirigibles remain, united to form one formidable flying city, Filmaelle, a self-sufficient community which flies over the Farend Ocean (Peronnet). The radiations of the Great Rain of Fire provokes mutations among beholders. Beholder city of Kargash settled in eastern Skothar (Robin).
2,989 BC Led by Urthyne Drelgh, a small band of Skotharian dwarves take refuge in a complex near the outermost edge of Blackmoor’s borders. The complex, which extends deep underground, grants the dwarves shelter from the dreaded Wasting disease (Calvin).
2,970 BC Thonian refugees settle Serison on the western Skothar coast and create the Kingdom of New Thonia. Some elves, dwarves, hin and pegataurs join the Kingdom too (James Ruhland, 1017 almanac, date mine).
2,960 BC The Cloud giant Inoq I creates a floating castle on the clouds of northern Skothar after saving many of his people from the Great Rain of Fire (LoZompatore).
2,900 BC Djaea promotes the birth of druidic orders in New Thonia to save the people from the devastation of the post Great Rain of Fire (Dalmonte). Jennite culture formed from remnants of the Afridhi and Oltec settlers of Esterhold (Author). Some Afridhi travel further south and are absorbed by Tangor people, forming the Nailan culture (Caroletti). The giant kingdom of Khatmun is created in the eastern mountains (M-Nepal from MOrient project). Conflict on the elves flying city provokes a crash on Skothar. Filmaelle is immobilised in a cold desert between mountains (Peronnet). Satum kingdom of the East Tangor Mountains now is divided between three rival dynasties (Author, JTR). The Second Tangor Empire no longer has control of the whole gulf as the first Empire did and is limited to the central region, mainly because many other people have settled the gulf (Author, Caroletti).
2,890 BC In north eastern Central Skothar, the Waros slowly began to flourish. Their coastal region becomes a land of stubborn farmers and tough warriors. The boldest of them return to the way of the horse and move into the interior, learning how to survive among the wastes. They brought back the news of the 'Virik al Rigoon', the 'Forest of Fungus', which was gradually growing in the heart of the Drakhaba al Kaloon. It was a strangely pale land of huge intertwined 'fungal' growth and insects which dwelt within it, led and guarded by the powerful 'Rigoon al Asagir', the 'Wise Ones of the Forest', huge armoured insects the size of a small village. The forest was filled with a strange miasma which would slay the unwary and careless. The explorers came to call themselves 'Sebgir', or 'Daring Ones', and learned how to survive briefly in the forest, and fairly well among the devastated lands (Biles).
2,898 BC Another city is built around crashed Filmaelle, named Ymlyn (Ebony) after the first tree to be planted (the seed of which came from Evergrun) (Peronnet).
2,886 BC Belorfiwyn creates the Marwar, a parasitic fungus which increases both production and the culture's resistance to the climate (Peronnet).
2,882 BC Belorfiwyn takes to the air with his fixed dirigible the Celorfimir, in order to gather all the tree species he can find around the world (Peronnet).
2,800 BC Jennites spread across the plains of Skothar. Some eventually settle in Minaea creating the Teslan culture. (Agosta and do Santos). Golden Khan of the Paesh, descendants of the Peshwah, creates The Great Kingdom of Haca (Author). Dragonchildren begin to appear in Haca and soon many of them become part of the Khan’s army (Rodger Burns, Author).
2,790 BC Foundation of the city of Tesla (Caroletti, Author).

[Image: Teslan musicians]
Caption: Teslan musicians

The Invasions

2,630 BC Some Skotharian dwarves leave their underground refuges to reach Minaea. Some are captured by kopru and brought away (Dornhoff, Calvin).
2,602 BC More Skotharian dwarves migrate to Alphatia and Brun, while some remain in Thorin (Caroletti)
2,600 BC Over the centuries, the Waros farmers, and the Sebgir nomads have split, and occasionally war with each other. The Waros build a series of short-lived nations which repeatedly crumbled into city states, sometimes falling prey to conquest by Sebgir tribes. They trade with the Tanagoro and Jennites (Biles).
2,576 BC Most of the Skotharian dwarves leave their underground refuge to go to Brun (Calvin).
2,500 BC
The great hivebrood expansion. Hivebrood expand into many region of Skothar, as the modern Esterhold and several regions of the Tangor chain, displacing humans and rakasta. Fall of the Second Tangor Empire and further displacement of Tanagoro people to the mountains and Zyxl. Tarastia unifies the sparse Jennite tribes and attains Immortality (Author, Codex Immortalis, Håvard). Some elves from Vulcania reach the Sea Kingdoms and Skothar (Author, MOrient project). Last flight of the Celorfimir, which tows the four other dirigibles in the valley to provide a core to four new cities. The Celorfimir settles around Ymlyn (Peronnet). By now the Nasuuan have reached Nentsun, settling on the warmer regions of the coast where the Fiery Serpent Sea keeps the coast relatively warm, but are in constant danger due to the intense volcanic activity (Author6, Sarikhan, Caroletti).
2,450 BC Third Tangor Empire founded, but it really has even less control on the Gulf region than the Second one. Tribal warfare is common in the following centuries (Author, Caroletti).
2,400 BC Newly born forests dot the landscape. They are composed by the different species Bellorfiwyn brought back from his trip: Oaks, Acacia, Maple trees, Poplars, and so on. The four new cities are named Celithrarith (Oak City), Elvawen (Maple Tree City), Sebrildur (Chestnut Tree City), and Manereteriel (Cedar City) (Peronnet).
2,333 BC Kingdom of Yeong created on the eastern Tangor coast (M-Korea in the MOrient project).
2,300 BC Ierain Klee, a candidate to Immortality in the Sphere of Energy who had been a priest in late Blackmoor, creates ten engines to warm artificially the cold lands of central Nasuua in Nentsun and becomes King. He moves most of the Nasuuan population away from the unstable southern coast (Caroletti, Author).
2,200 BC First Tanagoro migration to the Serpent Peninsula. (CoM)
2,166 BC The Kasharin affliction (probably a beholder version of the Wasting Disease), regular volcanic eruptions, and Tangor attacks force the beholders to abandon Kargash (Robin).
2,050 BC: Fall of the Enduk realm in North western Davania, Minoides kills Gildesh, the followers of Minoides become the modern minotaurs and create a kingdom in the region. The Enduk survivors escape to Brun (Canon, Mishler, Author).
2,000 BC Tanagoro migration to the east, reaching north western Davania. (HW boxed set). Some Ee’aar elves from the Arm of the Immortal reach Eastern Skothar (MOrient project). Magnificent forests cover the totality of the valley. The Ainuliinde and Nadriendel clans have merged and are named from now on the Anuliindriendel (Peronnet).
1,900 BC Rise of the Jennites who conquer almost all of central Skothar (HW Boxed set).
1,950 BC By now Klee has brought other peoples to Nasuua and chosen ten apprentices to watch over ten engines which warm Nasuua. The local tribes are divided and often war among themselves (Caroletti).
1,800 BC Kingdom of Yeha founded in the East Tangor chain as Tanagoro people conquer the remnants of Satum (M-Ethiopia from the Morient project, Author).
1,750 BC Humans and Elves destroy the minotaur kingdom in Davania. First minotaurs lead by Minoides (or a descendant) arrive on Skothar, invading the Tangor Peninsula. (Caroletti, Author). Tanagoro migration to the Arm of the Immortals and Yalu bay (Threshold issue #17)
1,706 BC Klee ascends as the Immortal Nentsun and leaves the ten apprentices to watch over the engines in an unified Nentsun formed by ten duchies (Caroletti).
1,700 BC Tribes of humanoids from Brun invade northern Skothar. Repelled by Nentsun and by the northern giants, they migrate to the central and southern area of the continent along the western coast (Author)
1,699 BC Minoides settles the city of Erech in Tesla (Caroletti).
1,697 BC
The minotaurs of Erech get in touch with the Teslan city of Ekimmu. Trade begins between the two populations (Caroletti).
1,649 BC A league formed by Minotaurs from Erech and Teslans from Ekimmu defeat the greatest Jennite attack of the last century (Caroletti).
1,650 BC The great humanoid invasion, Fall of the Golden Khan. Fall of the Third Tangor Empire. Great barbarian hordes of central Skothar form, made up of ruling humanoids or rakasta and enslaved humanoids (Author, MOrient project). A tribe of goblins and hobgoblins mix with a Jennite clan, eventually creating the Wanderers of Central Skothar (Burns). Goblins and hobgoblins invade Thonia in large number, occupying for a time the whole north east of the nation, until they are repelled to the wilderlands and partially integrated into the kingdom (Author, Almanac 1017).
1,623 BC After successfully defending Erech from humanoid attacks, Minoides leaves Erech, appointing his son Atreides as the new King of Minotaurs (Caroletti).
1,600 BC Second Tanagoro migration to the west under Emperor Kumba, reaching Sea Kingdoms, Vulcania, Pearl Islands, Arypt and Cestia. (HW boxed set and Threshold issue #9). Jennite wars between traditional followers of Tarastia and followers of Rathanos, traditional Jennites brought to the Hollow World. (HW boxed set). Some Jennites settle in Teslan lands forming the Tarystian culture (Agosta and dos Santos).

[Image: Jennite belt]
Caption: Jennite gold belt

1,589 BC Atreides of Erech dies. His daughter Pallas becomes Queen (Caroletti).
1,577 BC Town of Sinbay founded by minotaurs, following the orders of Queen Pallas. Minotaurs extend their control over this part of Tesla (Caroletti).
1,550 BC East Tangor is again invaded by Hivebrood, which reach to the gulf. Eventually humans, rakasta and humanoids cooperate to limit their spread. A dynasty of ogre rulers establish the Fourth Tangor Empire in Tangor. Tanagogre born of human and ogre parents soon become a middle class in the empire between ogre rulers and human subjects (Author, Caroletti).
1,555 BC Queen Pallas of Erech dies. Her son Agesilaon becomes King.
1,511 BC Agesilaon dies of old age. Rumours that he was poisoned by his son Minoides spread unrest among the population. Minoides seizes the throne as Minoides II, but is forced to establish the kingdom's laws, written down and ratified by minotaurs from the most important families (Caroletti).
1,509 BC Town of Qyrta founded by Sinbayan minotaurs. They are led by a dissident minotaur named Achlon, that fiercely opposes the Minoides dynasty. Kingdom of Minotaurs renamed Minoidean Kingdom (Caroletti).
1,500 BC Silver Khan unifies humans and humanoids of the plains in the new Haca (Author).
1,488 - 1,483 BC First War of Tears. Minoideans minotaurs fight against the Achlonites, claiming that they have settled on Minoidean lands. Mercenaries from Ekimmu are employed by both factions, while the government of Ekimmu doesn't involve itself in the war (Caroletti).
1,477 BC Minoides II dies mysteriously in his sleep. His eldest daughter Iphygenia becomes Queen (Caroletti).
1,469-8 BC Queen Iphygenia sends messengers to the Qyrtans, asking them to open diplomatic ties. A group of aggressive minotaurs that oppose these ideas are exiled by the Queen and leave westwards. Diplomatic ties opened between the City State of Qyrta and the Minoidean Kingdom (Caroletti).
1,462 BC Queen Iphygenia is killed by her husband Archon, who is thereafter executed. In fact, Archon was innocent, because the one responsible for her death was her son Minoides III, the new Minoidean King. Town of Deianira founded (Caroletti).
1,459 BC Sphinxes attack Erech after the king killed one of them. Minoides III is then killed by an Immortal avatar in the form of a flaming minotaur for his empiety. Erech becomes a republic (Caroletti).
1,450 BC Polonius the triton becomes lord of the Sea Kingdoms, creating the coral walls to defend them from the Kara Kara orcs, and attaining immortality (Dalmonte). Gold and iron mines found in the territories north of Qyrta. Qyrta start heavy commerce with surrounding cities (Caroletti).
1,446 - 1,441 BC: Second War of Tears. Republic of Erech against City State of Qyrta. The Qyrtans win thanks to the help of mercenaries and their sphinx allies (Caroletti).
1,428 BC Astartius, High Priest of Minoides, is king of Erech (Caroletti).
1,399 BC Astartius abdicates to his son Iacynthon (Caroletti).
1,391 BC Priests of Minoides accuse King Iacynthon of being a tyrant and depose him. Kingdom of Erech becomes a Theocracy, ruled by the High Priest of Minoides (Caroletti).
1,364 - 1,361 BC The High Theocrats of Erech declare war on the City State of Qyrta. Third War of Tears. The Minoideans win and most of the Qyrtan riches and lands are assigned to the Theocracy and to Erech (Caroletti).
1,359 - 1,356 BC Disappointed with his High Theocrats, Minoides stops to give them spells and sends a plague until the Threocrats are deposed by the faithful cleric Albaran, who becomes the new King of Erech and Sinbay (Caroletti).
1,354 BC Albaran offers a new peace treaty to the Qyrtans, returning the land taken during the Third War to them (Caroletti).
1,349 BC A group of military officers depose Albaran. Albaran and nearly two thousand minotaurs flee Erech and settle in Sinbay, where they declare independence (Caroletti).
1,349 - 1,340 BC Fourth War of Tears: Erech vs Sinbay & Qyrta. At the end of the war Sinbay is a mass of burning ashes and is later rebuilt by the Erechians. Qyrta is again dispossessed of its land, although it retains its independence. Albaran is the new King of Qyrta. Cults of Minoides and Poseidon officially banned from Erech, the minotaur leaders turn to the worship of a barbaric divinity named Gylgarid, imported from mercenaries of the East that were employed for the war (Caroletti).
1,338 - 1,327 BC Albaran seeks the aid of northern sphinxes and later of a mercenary company from the Jennite Lands, the Green Spear, secretly followers of Jammudaru, who eventually poison him and take control of the city (Caroletti)
1,250 BC Some Tanagogres from Skothar invade Davania establishing their dominion in Arica. They quickly sever their ties to Skothar to escape the control of the ogre rulers of Tangor (Wilson, Threshold issue #5, Author).
1,220 BC By now Qyrta has changed for the worse. Many minotaurs leave the city and move westwards to the sea and even Brun. Those who remain are turned to the worship of Jammudaru. Meanwhile, the military hierarchy of Erech continues to rule the Minoidean Kingdom. Minoides renounces his Quest for Immortality and Protius turns him into an Exalted being (Caroletti).
1,218 BC A group of minotaur dissidents from Qyrta and Sinbay manage to throw down the Erechian corrupted government. They create a Republic and grant religious freedom to the population. Minoides is again revered openly, although adventurers and military officers remain mostly worshippers of Gylgarid (Caroletti).
1,215-1,204 BC Growing tension between Qyrta and Erech leads to the Fifth War of Tears. Qyrta is destroyed and its inhabitants massacred. The survivors hide in the mountains and continue to worship Jammudaru (Caroletti).
1,212 BC Rakasta tribes guided by rakshasas invade and conquer Nentsun, enslaving the population (Caroletti).
1,201 BC The ten dukes of Nentsun are dead and the engines begin to emit radiations, poisoning the rakasta and human population (Caroletti).
1,200 BC First emperor of Chung Eun crowned on the Dragon Throne, east of Haca. Chung Eun and Haca fight several wars in the following centuries competing for the eastern plains of Skothar (MOrient project, Author).

[Image: Chung depiction of dragons]
Caption: Chung depiction of dragons

1,146 BC Orcnad leads a great revolt in Nentsun, defeating the rakshasas with the help of most rakasta, and becomes first King of Nentsun (Caroletti).
1,135 BC Tarystian conquer the Teslan city of Ekimmu. By now the Teslan have been absorbed by the Tarystia culture (Fan Almanacs, Author).
1,100 BC Wuo people, mixed humans and humanoids, settle the Tangor chain (M-Manchiuria from MOrient project). Paesh people settle the Sea Kingdoms, Vulcania, the Isles of Steam, some parts of the Davanian coast (Yasuko) and Ochalea (Threshold issue #5, #11). Hinu halflings menaced by humanoids escape to Zyxl. Sindhi refugees reach Skothar, settling in the eastern gulf of Tangor and influencing the culture of the late kingdom of Tanat (MOrient project, Author). Fall of the Fourth Tangor Empire, more migrations to the Sea Kingdom, Vulcania, Cestia, Arypt and the Pearl Islands (Author). The Tanagoro migrations meet the Nithians who have colonized the Alatian islands and the two people agree on a peaceful division of territories. The Tanagoro settle the Pearl Islands and parts of the Aryptian coast near the Nithians (LoZompatore, Author). By now the minotaurs of the northern mountain have become increasingly violent under the leadership of the brutal clergy of Jammudaru. The minotaur raiding bands become another of the humanoid threats that periodically harass the Tarystian coast, and then Minaea into modern times (Caroletti).
1,054 BC The Tarystian city of Traun is founded (Caroletti).
1,010 BC Beholders resettle their old city of Kargash in north eastern Skothar (Robin).
1,000 BC Arrival of the Alphatians, who soon proceed to conquer the island from native cultures. Some refugees from the native Alphatian kingdoms settle Tarystia and Jennite lands (Canon, Author).
1,000 - 990 BC Nithian explorers reach Skothar and contact Thonia, several Jennites tribes and Tarystia. The Alphatians make the same initial contact as well, following the Nithians (Supposed, but likely). The Sakhalian culture arises in northeastern Skothar from dwarves and humans, slaves and Blackmoorians, in the northern area of the Drakhaba al Kaloon, eventually forming the Sakhalin Empire (Biles).
986 BC City of Lendar founded in Tarystia (Caroletti).
980 BC In Tangor the union of goblins with humans creates the new Dark Goblin breed which settles in the Western Tangor mountains dividing into 10 different tribes (Caroletti, Author).
911 BC The Black Sorcerer of Durhan unifies the gulf of Tangor in the Fifth Tangor Empire (Caroletti, Author).
900 BC The arrivals of the Alphatians worries the Thonian Kingdom, who is wary of the newcomers, even if some minimal trade begins (Ruhland). In the elven valley, Belorfael (descendant of Belorfiwyn) develops the Trarwar (a variety of Marwar which doubles the growing capabilities of the trees). This fungus is inoculated to the five symbolic trees of the cities and planted at the core of the cities (Peronnet). Orcs and goblins start to attack Nentsun from the southern mountains (Caroletti)
897 BC Alphatians settle Aaslin and Alinquin in Bellisaria. For centuries their control of the island will not extend beyond the two cities (Ebenezum, Author, Threshold issue #11).
854 BC The Black Sorcerer of Durhan is killed by a Jennite adventurer named Eet-an and chaos of competing pretenders follows his demise (Caroletti)
850 BC The peaceful faith of Koryis, also later know in some nations of Skothar as Rohindartha7, spreads and becomes official religion in Chung Eun. Mysticism develops and spreads in southern and central Skothar (MOrient project).
841 BC Eet-an, now known as the Steel Demon, crowns himself King of Ubu and Tangor (Caroletti).
821 BC: The Steel Demon leaves his kingdom and a iron golem named Hawa Dulu reigns in his place (Caroletti).
800 BC Before the final fall of the Sylvan Realm some elves sail from Brun to Skothar (MOrient project).
750 BC Haca invaders place a Khan on the Chung Eun dragon throne. Many Wan refugees settle the bay of Tangor, eventually leading to the creation of the Tangi Empire in the eastern part of the gulf. The hero Jiku leads some Chung refugees, escaping the new Khan, to Zyxl (MOrient project, Author).
733 BC Local Tangor people attack the Beholder city of Kargash but fail to destroy it (Robin) 730 BC The Tangors bordering the hivebrood colonies manage to open diplomatic relations with the insectoid humanoids. The two races start to collaborate in the face of the menace coming from the north: a massive migration of Dark Goblins led by a charismatic chief named Ghulan (Caroletti).
710 BC The Ursinians, a human population descended from Afridhi and Tanagoro, settle in Nentsun (Caroletti).
700 BC Alphatians buy gnoll slaves from the Nithians and bring them to Skothar, with the intent of using them eventually, but soon the project is forgotten and the gnolls settle between Jen and Thonia, becoming the Thoth-Ath gnolls (Nowack). A few gnolls are captured by the Thonians and eventually integrated into the kingdom (Almanac 1017)
696 BC The hivebrood and Tangors of the eastern borders repel the goblins. The Dark Goblins settle in the forested regions just at the north of them (Caroletti).
665-61 BC A great campaign conducted by the hivebrood colony of Lleweryn and the Tangors of the city of Yara defeat the Dark Goblins, whose king Ghulan had died some years before. The survivors become hivebrood slaves (Caroletti).
660 BC The general Guthbrand becomes famous in Thonia, later leaving to serve under the Alphatians (Dalmonte).
632 BC orcs and goblins invade Nentsun conquering most of the Outer Circle, the region not warmed by the engines, but the dukes resist in the lands of the Inner Circle (Caroletti).
600 BC Guthbrand is a famous Nentsunian pirate on his path to Immortality as the Eternal General (Dalmonte). Haca invaders have now been absorbed by the Chung culture and Chung Eun expands in former Haca territories (MOrient project, Author). Empress Himiko of Zyxl defeats the Chung Emperor attack on the island (MOrient project). The western Tangor kingdom of Yara becomes powerful by supplying slaves to the hivebrood of Lleweryn (Caroletti). Milenians found colonies on the Isle of Dawn, Bellissaria and the Alatian islands, soon entering in conflict with Alphatia (Author, Threshold issue #11)
570 BC An Alphatian wizard discovers a magical blue clay in Skothar, but is killed by a rival (Robin8)
565 BC The beholder city of Zelphim is founded in northern Skothar. Beholders proceed to enslave local humanoids and humans (Robin).
554 BC Some non-wizard Alphatians settle the Alatians islands allying with Milenians against their empire (Guerra, Threshold issue #11, Author)
550 BC Some Hatwa elves from Davania refusing integration with the ogres reach Skothar. Finding ogres and tanagogres in the gulf, they help local humans and rakasta fight them, establishing the first seed of the Muang kingdom (Author, MOrient project). A Nithian expeditionary force to modern Esterhold takes control of the elven valley in north central Skothar. Nithian priests and magicians discover the remains of technology used in the dirigibles and conduct experiments (Peronnet).

[Image: Temple complex in Muang]
Caption: Temple complex in Muang

540 BC Belorfanwyl of the elven valley creates a mutated version of the Trarwar, the Uurwar (which provokes quicker and bigger growth of vegetation). Helped by the Elven resistance, the fungus is spread everywhere in the valley. When the fungus are magically activated, the trees mutate and grow hundred of meters in a matter of hours. The Nithian expeditionary force is crushed by the elvish resistance. The elvish population settles up at the top of the trees. (Peronnet).
530 BC The five cities are moved to the top of the trees and the elven valley becomes Calengaer the green ocean. The foot of the trees, already difficult to reach is made impossible to reach because of the toxic emanations of the Urwar. A web of trails is set in the foliage allowing easier communications between the cities (Peronnet).
500 BC Milenians who by now have colonies all over the Isle of Dawn and Bellisaria, begin trade with Skothar. Kiranjo minotaurs devastate Jennite lands and eventually settle in Tarystia (Threshold issue #11, Codex Immortalis). Chung contact with Alphatia in the central Gulf of Tangor is disastrous and the eastern empire becomes more and more isolationist (MOrient project). Traces and memory of Nithia are wiped out in Brun but some survive in Skothar among the Thoth-Ath gnolls and in the southern city of Mizpeh (Novack, Taylor). By now in northeastern Central Skothar the Virik al Rigoon is growing over the Sebgir lands, while the forces of the Sakhalin Empire come from the north. The Empire uses lost Blackmoorian magitech to conquer (Biles). Alphatia absorbs Thothia and a rivalry develops between Alphatians and Milenians in the Alphatian Sea, slowly building to an undeclared war (Author, Threshold issue #11)
463 BC The hivebrood are united by the Controllers of Lleweryn in a Great Colony (Caroletti).
450 BC Great Wall of Chung built to stop Jennite raids (MOrient project). The Thoth-Ath gnolls build the Great Pyramid to preserve their knowledge and are aided by Rathanos. They establish peaceful relations with the local Jennites (Novack). First unique creatures appear in Calengaer (Peronnet).
392 BC King Tsen founds the realm of Hasa in the Tangor mountains, unifying humans, rakasta and humanoids (M-Tibet from MOrient project).
350 BC Chung isolationism lessens and colonies are founded in other regions of Skothar (MOrient project). The Sakhalin Empire has conquered the divided Waros kingdoms and become a mighty empire which begins to exploit the creatures of the Virik al Rigoon for their own benefit, especially the Rigoon al Asagir, whose shells can be used to make nearly indestructible armour and weapons. The conquest is quick and astonishing, reaching Jennite lands and obtaining tributes from Chung Eun and the God King Eryos of Tangi (Biles, Author). Orcs and goblins south of Nentsun begin a terrible civil war which ends with the defeat of the goblins and exile of the green orcs, while the victorious orcs create small nations which also accept human settlers (Caroletti).
333 BC King Tekhmet of Sakhalin decides to destroy the Virik al Rigoon but thousands of Rigoon al Asagir sweep out of the forest, and the Virik al Ragoon swell to several times its former size. The Sakhalin Empire collapses. The Sebgir, Waros and the dwarves revolt and Sakhalin break apart into squabbling states (Biles).
325 BC The beholder city of Zelphim is destroyed by a combined attack of humanoids and humans, displaced after the fall of the Sakhalin Empire (Robin, Author).
300 BC Peaceful tanagogres, mostly followers of Sumag (Terra) leave Skothar for the Arm of the Immortals (Canon). The war between Alphatians and Milenians intensifies in the Dawn Sea and the Alphatians attack Milenian cities on the Isle of Dawn, Alatian islands and Bellissaria. Alphatia occupies Ochalea and the Pearl Islands. The Milenians ally with or pay Tarystian, Traldar and Thyatian pirates to attack Alphatians (Author, Threshold issue #11).

[Image: Tanagogre temple]
Caption: Tanagogre temple in the Tangor Chain

290 BC Alphatia plans a full conquest of all the Milenian colonies on the Isle of Dawn and starts to attack them. Attacks on the powerful Milenian cities on Bellissaria have less success (Author, Threshold issue #11)
220 BC In Calengaer the first cyme-raft to navigate over the trees is built (Peronnet).
210 BC Tritons escaping the devilfish settle the Sea Kingdoms (PC2, Author)
200 BC Alphatians invade the lands of Jen, driving the nomadic inhabitants back several hundred miles. The Alphatians call their new lands Esterhold and take Jennite slaves (DotE). Alphatian magic in Esterhold interior lands leads to the spread of the Kukarachans, large, semi-intelligent insects descended from cockroaches (Daly, Gander). Eyvind, an explorer of from the Antalian kingdom of Ystmarhavn in Qeodhar, discover the warm and sparsely inhabited southern coast of Nentsun, and establish a colony, enslaving the local population. The volcanic activity of the Fiery Serpent Sea is greatly reduced by now. Due to the Nentsunian reaction, he ultimately fails in his ambitions of conquest and is succeeded by his wife, who releases all the slaves and with firmness and treaties succeed in creating the kingdom of Højgylden (Sarikhan, Author, Caroletti). By now in the eastern and northern fringes of the Drakhaba al Kaloon there are many squabbling city states, much like the southern region of the Waros, but slightly higher in technological level. Most of these states boast a handful of functional Blackmoorian devices, pried from ruins and carefully maintained. The dwarves gain a powerful economic position (Biles).
195 BC Alphatia completes the conquest of Mileanian colonies in the southern Isle of Dawn and Aeria, but Aegos resists and fights back (Author, Threshold issue #11)
192 BC Alphatia conquers Thyatis and attacks Mileanian cities in the southern Alatians and Bellissaria. Milenia strikes back ferociously in support of its colonies (Author, Threshold issue #11).
188 BC Tangor troops attack the beholder city of Kargash but are repelled (Robin).
167-153 BC Four Tangor kingdoms are slowly united by Makala, a woman sorceress and brilliant tactician, into the Sixth Empire of Tangor (Caroletti).
151 BC Kingdom of Gan founded in the Tangor Peninsula by Paesh people, later to be known as the Land of a Thousands Pagodas or Sian. (M-Myanmar in the MOrient project).
141 BC Alphatian campaign in Bellissaria conquers the western half of the island. Gaity falls into Alphatian hands as well. Milenian forces resist in Aegos (Author, Threshold issue #11).
123 BC A half-orc king known as Glashow unifies the orc territories of Nentsun and conquers the Outer Circle. Glashow’s army soon revolts under his lieutenant Abdus (Caroletti).
113 BC The last surviving duke of Nentsun, Kewd the Hawk manages to restore pace to part of the lands, gives a central government to the Inner Circle and is crowned King. In the eastern conflicting lands, the Ursinians are able to restore peace, but most of the Outer Circle is dominated by brigands and orc bands (Caroletti).
104 BC Thanasis is the first Milenian colony founded in Tarystia (Caroletti).
100 BC Minaea founded by Milenian colonists from Davania (Canon). The city of Minaea is founded after an agreement with Tarystia to resist Alphatian encroachment in the region (Caroletti, Author). In the next two decades from the decadent and collapsing Milenian Empire waves of refugees arrive in Bellissaria and join the fight against Alphatians (Author).
99 BC Milenians colonists settle Alchemos and eastern Bellissaria in large numbers (Author, Khan).
94 BC Green orcs of the Nentsun mountains descend to reconquer their ancestral lands, and the Outer Circle and the hill regions of the south (known by now as Glashow's Desolation) are left in a state of chaos and instability (Caroletti).
90 BC Adunapolis is founded by Milenians in Minaea (Caroletti, Author).
66 BC Alphatians attack in Bellissaria, temporarily conquering Alchemos and pushing Minaean forces to the eastern peninsulae (Khan, Author).
65 BC An Alphatian expedition is defeated near Minaea by a combined Milenian and Tarystian force, cementing the alliance between the two people (Author).
50 BC The fall of Milenia brings other refugees to Minaea (Author).
45 BC Now isolated from other Milenian lands, Aegos finally falls into Alphatian hands. More refugees reach Minaea (Author).
43 BC Sanka the Hawk of Nentsun founds the Divine School of the Bear to train the ten masters needed to control the engines. No one remembered the existence of the engines, apart from the aristocrats (Caroletti).

The last thousand years

0 AC A fire in the Temple of the Remembrances in New Thonia destroys most of the ancient Blackmoorian/Thonian relics that survived the Great Rain of Fire. Among them there were the last ancient Thonian coins known to Mystarans (DA1). First King of Muang crowned in the Tangor Bay (M-Thailand from the MOrient project). Thoth-Ath gnolls and Jennite raiders attack the Alphatian settlements in Esterhold, almost driving them away from Skothar (Nowack). The Alphatians counterattack and overrun and burn to the ground a Jennite settlement in the NW of the peninsula. They build their own settlement called Sky-Fire (DotE). There are now five main kingdoms in West Tangor: the Tangor Empire, the Kingdom of Ubu, the Kingdom of Mawuru, the Principality of Zambul and the Republic of Durhan (Caroletti).
10 AC Minaeans exploit Alphatian difficulties to launch a campaign of conquest in Bellissaria, and eventually take the western and southern half of the island (Author).
42 AC First Kukarachan attacks on Alphatian colonies in Esterhold (Daly, Gander, Author)
100 AC Macroblan the Tanagogre defeats the giants and ogres ruling the Tangor range and becomes an Immortal. The Kingdom of Oblan is created. (Dalmonte, Author).
115 AC Dalya, an adventurer from Rockhome, discovers the unnaturally warm coast of Højgylden in Northern Skothar, leading to a migration of dwarves, gnomes and Ostlanders to Skothar (Sarikhan).
133 AC The dwarves and gnomes eventually conquer the kingdom of Højgylden and Dalya becomes Queen (Sarikhan).
135 AC In Nentsun the engines are emitting radiations again: disgusted by the incompetence of the aristocrats, Kashang, Baron of Wolven, raises an army of Outer Circle mercenaries, and conquers the Kingdom of Vixen. Kashang reunifies several kingdoms, and re-organizes the engine control, creating another school of fighting, the Sacred School of Nentsun, to help the efforts of the Divine School of the Bear. He tells the population that the reasons for the prosperity of the land were the dangerous engines, that he called "Unholy Devices of Blekmur, things which caused the first destruction of an Empire in Nentsun"(Caroletti).
150 AC The Silver Khan of Haca is killed by dragons and the realm falls (Author). First gondolfière built in Calengaer (Peronnet).
179 AC Dalya abdicates in Højgylden and the Sisterhood of Kuldana is created as guardians of the realm (Sarikhan).
193-194 AC In West Tangor the Republic of Durhan is conquered by Zambul (Caroletti).

[Image: Tangor cavalry]
Caption: Tangor cavalry

200 AC Alliance between Thonia and the Jennites as Alphatian control increases in Esterhold (James Ruhland). In Minaea, Milenian and Tarystian cultures have blended by now: the Milenians, who had taken with them the technology, magics and architecture of their homelands, are gradually absorbed into the piratical, warlike Tarystian way of life, abandoning their old patriarchal ways for the egalitarian Tarystian attitude (Fan Almanacs). In Højgylden gnomes have developed greenhouses and the printing press. Trade with Alphatia flourishes, but the Empire plans a conquest of the prosperous small kingdom (Sarikhan).
219 AC Kingdom of Ubu conquered by the Seventh Tangor Empire, refugees found the city state of Akuba in eastern Minaea (Caroletti).
227 AC Refugees from the Kingdom of Mawuru, conquered by the Seventh Tangor Empire, reach Akuba (Caroletti).
238 AC Alphatian forces led by general Neroli conquer Højgylden (Sarikhan).
243 AC Some Mawurans build the city of Batu Fomba. The only other Tangor kingdom to remain independent from the Empire is the mountain Principate of Zambul (Caroletti).
252 AC As Alphatian forces are sent to Ylaruam, the Sisterhood of Kuldana stages a rebellion in Højgylden and frees the country from Alphatian control, but some Alphatians remain in the kingdom and are accepted as citizens (Sarikhan).
260 AC Højgylden develops small airships and establishes trade with Nentsun and Thonia, creating also the colony of Bajreve in former humanoid territories to the east (Sarikhan).
270 AC Diplomatic contacts between Højgylden and Thorin do not go well, almost leading to war between the two nations (Sarikhan).
296 AC Kukarachans have become common and numerous in the interior of Esterhold, harassing both Jennites and Alphatians. The Alphatians try to exterminate them, but are only partially successful (Daly, Gander, Author)
300 AC The huge red dragon who will become Pearl rules over Haca and later conquers Chung Eun too (Codex Immortalis, Threshold issue #9). Højgylden skyships discover the undead followers of Hel of the Burning Spires Mountain Range, but the Sisterhood of Kuldana stops any plan to destroy them (Sarikhan).
335 AC Several Tarystian-Minaean cities decide to create a league in order to resist the aggressive attitude of the neighbouring Seventh Tangor Empire (Caroletti).
335-336 AC Minaea's victory over the Seventh Tangor Empire (Caroletti).
353 AC Four Alphatian wizards become the rulers of the Tarystian city of Lendar in Minaea and rename it Leontion. Piracy against Alphatia ceases in the region and the city begins to trade with Alphatia (Caroletti).
354 AC A coalition of Minaean cities attack Leontion but fails to conquer it. The four ruling wizards sign a peace treaty, promising not to become an Alphatian Imperial base in Minaea (Author).
360 AC Tension decreases between Højgylden and Alphatia and trade resumes (Sarikhan).
374 AC King Rikyudy of Wolven destroys the rakastan city of Zeshuita and enslaves the population to possess the local silver mines. Many other Nentusian states, enraged by the brutal conclusion of the siege, declared war on Wolven (Caroletti).
393 AC A kukarachan swarm time endangers Alphatians and Jennites in Esterhold until put down by massive Alphatian intervention (Gander, Author)
400 AC Højgylden skyships discover the northern entry to the Hollow World and after some failed expeditions, succeed in contacting some Antalian and Beastmen tribes (Sarikhan).
411 AC The Nentusunian leader known as Warchild creates a theocratic Confederation of 12 states over the entire Nentsun region, each assigned to one of the 12 Immortals of the Nentsunian pantheon (Caroletti).
439-446 AC The Seventh Tangor Empire attacks eastern Minaea (Caroletti)
445 AC Akuba is conquered by the Seventh Tangor Empire (Caroletti).
467 AC Tangor tribes attack the beholder city of Kargash but are defeated (Robin)
500 AC In north eastern Skothar a powerful Waros leader, Nimrod the Great, conquers the Sebgir and begins to exploit the Rigoon al Asagir to arm his troops. While he is about to conquer the remnants of the Sakhalin states the Rigoon al Asagir attack much of the Sebgir lands. The Waros emperor is slain, the Sebgir come close to extinction, and the Virik al Ragoon reaches the border of the Waros lands (Biles).
502 AC Minaeans settle the colony of Erineos (Caroletti).
510 AC Gemstone dragons return to Skothar, slowly gaining dominance again in the continent and establishing the Council of the Six Great Dragons, a Huge Crystal in Nentsun, a Huge Ruby in the Thonian Range, a Huge Onyx in Minaea, a Huge Sapphire in Esterhold, a Huge Jade in the Tangor Bay and a Huge Amber in the Tangor Chain (Dragonlord trilogy, Threshold issue #9).
523 AC The recently formed Nentsunian confederation is split into twelve dominions and soon descendants of the ancient families are back on the thrones. The leadership of the Inner Circle, result in malcontent and hostility in the regions of the Outer Circle (Caroletti).
530 AC Thonia threatens to invade Højgylden but eventually desists (Sarikhan).
536-539 AC Minaea loses a war with the northern Kingdom of Hastwr over the control of the cities of Dool and Durke (Fan Almanacs).
543 AC A swarm of kukarachans hits Esterhold. The Alphatians obtain the cooperation of Jennite tribes to fight the insects (Gander, Author).
554 AC City of Vidruntos founded in Minaea (Caroletti)
575 AC Micael Scryv, high priest of the Wind of Nentsun raises an army from the Outer Circle, conquers the city of Wolven and kills Alsun, King of Wolven, then he proclaims the Outer Circle free of the Inner (Caroletti).
581 AC Minaea grants independence to its colony of Erineos (Caroletti).
590 AC Alphatia attacks Milenian cities in Bellissaria, almost conquering all the island (Author).
595 AC Minaeans intervene in Bellissaria, defeating the Alphatians who have to retreat to the line of Aaslin (Author, Threshold issue #11).
633-42 AC Great slave revolt in the hivebrood kingdom of Lleweryn. It takes nearly ten years for the insectoids to again take control of the goblins, many of whom manage to flee into the mountains. This leads to increasing tensions with Zambul, who accuse them of raids (Caroletti).
645-67 AC Tangor and Lleweryn conquest Zambul after a long war. Empress Zaila the Ruthless of Tangor donates all the prisoners of Durhanian language as slaves to the hivebrood in exchange for the complete sovereignty over Zambul (663). Disgusted by the political move of the Empress, several nobles and cities revolt, but the Empress crushes them (667) (Caroletti).
649 AC Refugees from Zambul settle the Tarystian city of Serenia in Minaea, in a territory claimed by Adunapolis (Caroletti).
652 AC Adunapolis attacks Serenia but fails to take the city. The on and off war will continue for decades (Caroletti).
671-674 AC Empress Zaila is poisoned by her fourth husband, who seizes the throne to rescue the hivebrood slaves. The hivebrood go eastward and invade the kingdom of Rathasia, weakening it greatly. The new Emperor, Vamoro III, is thus able to conquer it (Caroletti).
681 AC The hivebrood conquer the Duchy of Cymru, and stop there, using the human population as broodlings (Caroletti).
690 AC The merchant organization known as the Ant is founded in Tangor to trade with the hivebrood and only they are allowed to enter their domains (Caroletti).
693 AC Dwarves exiled from Thorin found the city of Dain-Karak in Minaea (Caroletti).
700 AC Chung Eun by this time has absorbed the Tangi empire, but their southern commercial port is sacked by Alphatians, provoking a time of isolationism in the eastern empire and eventually the independence of Tangi (MOrient project, Author). Tanagoro sea raiders begin to harass the coast of Waros, and eventually the Taylin Tanagoro conquer all the coast. Some of the nobles of the Waros kingdoms escape to the northwest, and join with the remains of the Sebgir in the western and northern fringes of the Drakhaba al Kaloon. These become known as the 'Valley Kingdoms', and are soon forced to swear fealty to the 'Taylin Heptarchy', a collection of seven kingdoms dominated by a Tanagoro-derived ruling class and led by the High King of the Taylin (Biles).
701 AC Emperor Swahimi of Tangor sets a plebiscite in the provinces of Durhan and Zambul, allowing the population to choose whether to become independent or remain in the Empire. Durhan chooses independence, Zambul remains in the Empire (Caroletti). Kukarachan swarms hit Alphatian colonies all over Esterhold, forcing the local rulers to ask for the help of the Empire to face the menace. Another purge of the creatures is done, but is not resolutive (Gander).
703 AC Beautification project by the Alphatian emperor in the Alatian islands leads to more Milenian refugees arriving in Bellissaria and Minaea (Guerra, Author)
708 - 715 AC A great plague spreads terror in Nentsun, orc raids increase in the Outer Circle which is almost abandoned (Caroletti).
720 AC A mysterious figure who calls himself 'the Holy Emperor' appears in the lands of the Sakhaba (the human survivors of the fallen Sakhalin Empire), with a great knowledge of Blackmoor's secrets (Biles).
721-722 AC The minotaur cities of Erech and Sinbay pillaged by orcs and savage minotaurs. (Caroletti).
723-725 AC Nentsun is invaded by giant butterflies of mysterious origin whose grubs damage the land until the creatures are repelled (Caroletti).
725 AC Alphatian forces complete the conquest of Bellissaria (Author, Threshold issue #11)
728-31 AC Hjika the orc conquers the rakasta kingdom of Einikushagi but soon his troops rebel against him (Caroletti).
730 AC The pirate Arkali, famous for many victories against Alphatians, deposes the democratic government of Minaea and becomes king, starting his dynasty, exploiting the fear of an Alphatian invasion. A Minaean attack on Bellissaria, at the same time as a Thyatian attack on the Alatians, is repelled by Alphatia (Caroletti, Author). Some Filwarf dwarves from the Isle of Dawn reach Minaea (Author, Caroletti, Theisen).
738 AC Minaea defeats the orcs and savage minotaurs and King Arkali reforms the League as a Confederacy of Thirteen cities and kingdoms, including the minotaur cities of Erech and Sinbay. Serenia and Adunapolis finally settle on a truce. (Caroletti). Leontion joins the Confederacy, and the four Alphatian wizard rulers swear fealty to Minaea, but they maintain peaceful trade relations with Alphatia (Author). Hjika is killed by the orc revolt, the rest of Nentsun defeats the orcs and Einikushugi is resettled by rakasta, but the orcs who had abandoned the savage ways are accepted in the area (Caroletti).

[Image: Minaean plate depicting a minotaur]
Caption: Minaean plate depicting a minotaur

742 AC Several Dark Goblin tribes of the mountains are conquered and united by a weird race of female humanoids that call themselves Demonettes, exiled from Zyxl. The new kingdom is called Lamu (Caroletti). The Iliifari elves from Alphatia settle the Outer Circle of Nentsun after chasing away some local orc tribes (Caroletti).
745 AC The Holy Empire of Sakhaba is born and the city of New Sakhalin rises on the ruins of the old (Biles).
794 AC The Demonettes ally themselves with the governor of Ekleke, and begin to prepare the city to regain its independence from the Tangor Empire (Caroletti).
800 AC The five cities of Calengaer have founded numerous forester villages on the canopy. Cyme-rafts and gondolfières travel the valley (Peronnet).
811 AC Thanasis creates the colony of Ire as a base to attack the Tangor Empire (Caroletti, Author).
814-816 AC Third Tangor War between Minaea and the New Tangor Empire. Ire joins the Minaean Confederacy as an independent city (Caroletti).
816 AC Akuba freed from the New Tangor Empire by the Minaean Confederacy, defeats an attack from the city of Batu-Fomba. The Mawuran city of Ekleke manages to gain independence. Black-men from Batu-Fomba organise a political coup to bring the city into the Confederation, but it is foiled by a young adventurer named Dabo. He is crowned King of the city (Caroletti).
823 AC The 80 year old Alphatian wizard Bo-Keem Marid is believed killed during an expedition in Esterhold, but he just found another world, Argain, and began to conquer it (Taylor). Demonettes begin to infiltrate the human population of Ekleke (Caroletti).
840 AC Højgylden defeats an invasion of humanoids and giants and enslaves them in the Læggenkul mine (Sarikhan, Author).
850 AC The huge red dragon which will become Pearl becomes an Immortal and leaves central Skothar (Dalmonte). His actions involuntarily wake a great ancient grey dragon which will take the name of Wei Huang Long (Author, Threshold issue #9).
890 AC Hivebrood attack the beholder city of Kargash but fail to conquer it (Robin). A great swarm of kukarachan attack Esterhold and is driven back by the Alphatians in the lands of Jen, where they are eventually destroyed after a large war (Gander).
895 AC In retaliation for the kukarachan invasion, the Jennites of Jen support the tribes of Esterhold in attacks against the Alphatians, years of raids and wars begin which often see the Alphatians in serious difficulties (Author).
900 AC Dalung-quo, the Empire of the Great Dragon or new Empire of the Great Khan is founded in the central plains of Skothar by the ancient dragon Wei Huang Long. He soon creates an army of Dragonchildren (Author, Burns). The Heptarchy of Taylin and the Holy Empire of Sakhaba come into contact around the fringes of the Virik al Ragoon but neither is able to wage a truly successful war (Biles).
912 AC Alphatia finally contains the Jennite raids and founds the port settlement of Anchorage in northern Esterhold, as a way station between Faraway and Skyfyr (PWA III, Author)
915 AC The port of Rock Harbor is founded by Alphatia on the Southeastern shore of Esterhold to increase trade (PWA III).
917 AC A green orc attack is crushed by Minaea at the Battle of Adunapolis (Caroletti).
934 AC The city of Dool revolts and leaves the Kingdom of Hastwr, joining the Confederacy of Minaea (Fan Almanacs).
949 AC The elf Skaarn became the first non-human Master in Nentsunian history (Caroletti).
950 AC Zyxl sends its warriors to start a trade in gems with Gombar and Suma’a (Dragon Magazine #200, Author)
964 AC Batu Fomba is raided by people from Akuba (Caroletti).
967-8 AC Batu Fomba and the Tangor Empire's city of Ungkha ally themselves against Akuba. The city is conquered and split in two parts: one controlled by the Governor of Ungkha and the other by the Ruling Council of Batu Fomba (Caroletti).
976 AC In Nentsun the elven King Vidaar is slain mysteriously in the forest. Rakasta are blamed and tension rises with the elves until it is discovered it was a plot by a paranoid elf (Caroletti).
981 AC Akuba regains independence and becomes a democratic government with the support of Minaea (Caroletti).
990 AC The lost Nithian city of Mizpeh is discovered by the Kassites, a tribe of Tanagoro and Jennites, who almost conquer it but are eventually repelled (Taylor).
993 AC The Alphatian wizard Bo-Keem Marid, on his path to Immortality and set to invade Skothar with an army of improved kobolds, the boor, is temporarily defeated by adventurers (Taylor).
1,000 AC Zelphim in Northern Skothar is resettled by a small number of beholders (Robin). Rumors abound in north eastern Skothar of the birth of a Holy Messenger, sent by the Immortals to finally bring peace between humans and the Virik al Ragoon, who will unite the lands and cleanse them, bringing about a new age of peace (Biles).
1,004 AC Eruption near the beholder city of Kargash, which is not directly damaged (Robin).
1,010 AC Xanthus of Skyfyr begins to act as an independent king in Esterhold (PWA I)
1,012 AC Xanthus is defeated by Alphatian and Jennite forces in Esterhold. (PWA III)
1,013 AC The New Alphatian Council names Favian Vern as King of Blackrock. King Favian’s first act is to declare all Jennites of Esterhold to be free citizens. (Fans Almanac).
1,017 AC Thyatian-Minrothaddan Skothar expedition prepares in Beitung, Ochalea (Fans Almanac)
1,018 AC Minrothad traders and the Thyatian-Minrothaddan expedition reaches Jennite lands in Esterhold (Fans Almanac).
1,019 AC The Thyatian-Minrothaddan expedition reaches Minaea, establishing good relations with the Confederation (Fans Almanac).


Early History
History And Evolution Of Rakastas by Simone Neri
A Timeline of the Oltec Man by Átila Pires dos Santos and Giampaolo Agosta
Ethnographic History of Mystara by Giulio Caroletti, Geoff Gander and Giampaolo Agosta
Codex Immortalis by Marco Dalmonte
Lhomarr: The Land, Its People, and Their History by Geoff Gander

The Age of Blackmoor by James Mishler
An Extended Blackmoor Timeline by LoZompatore
Legend of Uhlmar the Elf-King by Håvard
The Maiden’s timeline in Blackmoor by Rafael
Age of the Wolf, vapourware Blackmoor 4th ed products
3000 BC, Under the Great Rain of Fire by me
Skothar Overview by Håvard
Blackmoor Regional Maps by Håvard

Hail Thonia! by JTR from Threshold Magazine issue 12
Thonia articles on the Vaults of Pandius by James Ruhland, Aaron Novack and others
The Thoth-Ath Gnolls by Aaron Nowack

Oriental Skothar
Skothar Overview by Håvard
Mystaran Orient Project
Dalung-quo, the Empire of the Great Dragon by the author
Who’s Who in the Wyrmsteeth part 2 by me from Threshold Magazine issue 9

Dwarves and other races
The (Not So) Young races, a guide to Dwarves and Gnomes by Giulio Caroletti from Threshold Magazine issue 14
Shimmering Lands by John Calvin
Lost Immortals: Tilla by Ripvanwormer
Demihumans of Skothar by Rodger Burns
Kargash: Beholder City by Robin and the expanded article in this same issue of Threshold magazine.
The Kukarachans by Jeff Daly and Geoff Gander
The castle of the Inoqs by LoZompatore

Other lands of Skothar
Atlas of Skothar from the Fan Almanacs
Calengaer, the green ocean by Frédéric Peronnet
Ist Campaign and Boor by Neal Taylor and
Kingdom of Højgylden (pronounced Hoygilden) by Isabelle Sarikhan
Drakhaba al Kaloon by John Walter Biles
Giulio Caroletti’s work on Nentsun

Tangor and Minaea
Tanagoro Timeline by Håvard
Thoughts on the post Rain of Fire Tanagoro Migrations by DJ Hartel
Oltec Timeline and Maps of the Known World before and after the GRoF by JTR and
Giulio Caroletti’s work on Tangor
Steven Wilson’s work on Arica
Giulio Caroletti’s work on Minaea and Minotaurs
Map of Minaea by me

Bellissaria and the Alphatian Sea
The Minaean Affair by Jamuga Khan
Expedition to the Great Southland by Captain Ebenezum
Alphatian Rulers since Landfall by Jennifer Guerra
History of the Filwarves by Andrew Theisen and Birth of the Filwarf Dwarves by Giulio Caroletti
The Sea of Steam and the Farend Ocean by LoZompatore


[Image: Chung Eun scroll]
Nymph of the Luo River, handscroll, ink and colors on silk, 27.1x572.8 cm, Palace Museum, Beijing. A copy of the original painting by Gu Kaizhi from the Southern Song Dynasty.


[Image: Great Rain of Fire]
Leonid Meteor Storm, as seen over North America on the night of November 12-13, 1833. Author Edmund Weiß.


[Image: Adventurer finds Blackmoorian tech]
Original drawing by Justin Pfeil, aka warriorneedsfood on The Piazza, check his Keeps on the Borderland comic (

[Image: Lhomarrian temple]
Sumerian ziggurat via Wikimedia commons


[Image: Thonian Princes]
"The seven electors choose Henry, Count of Luxembourg, as King of the Romans at Frankfurt on the 27th day of November." Drawing on parchment from 1341; today at public main federal state record office in Koblenz, Germany.


[Image: King Uther]
Rhead, George Wooliscroft & Louis. "Arthur Leading the Charge at Mount Badon" from Tennyson, Alfred. Idylls of the King: Vivien, Elaine, Enid, Guinevere. New York: R. H. Russell, 1898.


[Image: Blackmoorians in Tangor]
Victoria (Cameroon) from “Das Buch von unseren Kolonien“ von Ottomar Beta, Leipzig 1908 by Rudolf Hellgrewe (1860–1935)


[Image: Blackmoorian Power]
The East offering its riches to Britannia. Allegorical ceiling piece commissioned by the East India Company in 1777 for the Revenue Committee Room in East India House. Oil on canvas.


[Image: Teslan musicians]
An illustration from the Encyclopaedia Biblica, a 1903 publication which is now in the public domain. Fig. 24 for article "Music". Image of an Assyrian quartet - two lyres, a drum, and cymbals


[Image: Jennite belt]
Gold scythian belt title from Mingachevir, Azerbaijan. Author Urek Meniashvili.


[Image: Chung depiction of dragons]
The Nine Dragon Wall in the Beihai Park, a large imperial garden in central Beijing, China. Author splitbrain.


[Image: Temple complex in Muang]
Wat Chai Wattanaram, Ayutthaya, Thailand, June 2005. Photographer: Heinrich Damm (User:Hdamm, Hdamm at


[Image: Tanagogre temple]
ete Giyorgis (Church of St. George), Lalibela, Ethiopia. Author Bernard Gagnon.


[Image: Tangor cavalry]
Mossi horsemen, from J.W. Buel. 1890. Heroes of the Dark Continent and How Stanley Found Emin Pasha. Philadelphia, PA, St. Louis, MO: Historical Publishing Company. Author J. W. Buel.


[Image: Minaean plate depicting a minotaur]
The Minotaur, tondo of an Attic bilingual kylix, circa 515 BC,
National Archaeological Museum of Spain. © Marie-Lan Nguyen / Wikimedia Commons / CC-BY 2.5


1See replicas by Thorfinn Tait in the Vaults of Pandius:

2Most of this comes from my article 99,9999985% Mystara history in the Vaults of Pandius Except for some notes in the text, most of the references of this timeline are listed at the end of the article.

3Inspired by real world felidae breeds ( Most of this chapter come from History And Evolution Of Rakastas by Simone Neri at the Vaults of Pandius: For another theory about the evolution of rakasta from Davania see also History and Origins of the Rakasta by Giampaolo Agosta from Threshold Magazine issue #5

4This event and other below are in truth inspired by the Kingdom of Karak in the Wilderlands setting used also by Håvard ( and James Mishler After Arneson left TSR, Blackmoor was published by Judges Guild and connected to the Wilderlands setting. However even if the Wilderlands could provide great inspiration for ancient Skothar, they have since become their own setting and I do not want to use them fully because the setting contains several non human races which do not really fit with Mystara.

5An exact correspondence between Blackmoor and Mystara history is quite arbitrary because the Hollow World boxed set only indicates 4,000 BC as the rise of Blackmoor, the DA series only speaks of 3,000 years ago (later retconned to 5,000) and the Blackmoor d20 setting was not officially connected to Mystara. I follow mostly LoZompatore’s timeline (see below) but have modified it taking into account Blackmoor d20 which did not existed when he created the timeline.

6The original Nentsun material by Giulio Caroletti probably meant to place the nation of Nentsun in the coast where I have instead placed the ruins of old Thonia (see maps in next article). I have chosen to place it instead in the north as the region is kept warmer that it should be given its position by the Fiery Serpent Sea created by Isabel Sarikhan, which keeps it from turning into arctic tundra, and later also by the Nentsunian machines.

7In the MOrient project he was an original Immortal, but Koryis could easily be used as it is supposed to have the same pacifist agenda. Older Immortals as Maat, Ilsundal and The Great One may be suitable too.

8Robin used this story to adapt the smurfs to Mystara, see